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My Struggle For An Education

My Struggle For An Education

Written by -Brooker T. Washington
Read-only in English without meaning
        One day, while (जबकि, के समय) at work in the coal mine (कोयले की खान), I happened (हुआ) to overhear (चुपके से सुनना) two miners (खान में काम करने वाले मजदूर) talking about a great school for colored (हब्शी, काले लोग, अश्वेत) people somewhere in Virginia. This was the first time that I had ever heard anything about any kind of school or college that was more pretentious (ख्यातिप्राप्त, प्रसिद्ध) than the little colored school in our town. As they went on describing the school, it seemed to me that it must be the greatest place on earth. Not even Heaven presented (दिया, प्रस्तुत किया) more attractions for me at that time than did the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, about which these men were talking. I resolved (दृढ निश्चय किया, संकल्प लिया) at once to go to that school, although (यद्यपि, हालाँकि) I had no idea where it was, or how many miles away, or how I was going to reach it. I was on fire constantly (हमेशा उत्तेजित रहा) with one ambition (अभिलाषा, दिली-इच्छा, and that was to go to Hampton. This thought was with me day and night.


         In the fall of 1872, I determined (दृढ-निश्चय) to make an effort to get there. My mother was troubled (परेशान, चिंतित) with a grave fear (बहुत बड़ा डर) that I was starting out (बाहर जाना, रवाना होना) on a, “wild-goose-chase (असंभव की खोज).” At any rate (चाहे जैसे, किसी भी कीमत पर), I got only a half-hearted (बेमन से, आधे मन से), consent (सहमति) from her that I might start. I had very little money with which to buy clothes and pay my travelling expenses (खर्चे). My brother John helped me all that he could; but, of course, that was not a great deal (बड़ी रकम, पर्याप्त).

         Finally (अंततः, आख़िरकार), the great day came, and I started for Hampton. I had only a small cheap (सस्ता) satchel (झोला, थैला) that contained (रखे था) the few articles (सामान, वस्तुएं) of clothing I could get. My mother at the time was rather (और भी ज्यादा) weak and broken in health. I hardly (बड़ी मुश्किल से) expected (आशा करता था) to see her again, and thus (इस प्रकार) our parting was all the more sad. She, however (फिर भी, हालाँकि), was very brave through it all.

       The distance from Malden to Hampton is about five hundred miles (मीलों). By walking (टहल कर), begging rides (सवारी मांग करके) both in wagons (घोडा-गाड़ी) and in the cars, in some way, after a      number of days, I reached the city of Richmond, Virginia, about eighty-two miles from Hampton. When I reached there, tired (थका हुआ), hungry (भूंखा) and dirty (गन्दा, मैला-कुचैला), it was late in the night.




       I had never been (नहीं रहा था) in a large city, and this rather (और भी) added to my misery मुसीबत). When I reached Richmond. I was completely out of money. I had not a single acquaintance (परिचित, जानने-पहचानने वाला) in the place; and, being unused (नव-सिखिया, अनभ्यस्त) to city ways, I did not know where to go, I asked at several (अनेक, कई) places for lodging (ठहरने के लिए) but they all wanted money, and that was what I did not have. Knowing nothing else (कुछ और) better to do, I walked the streets.




        I must have walked the streets till after midnight (मध्य-रात्रि). At last, I became so (बहुत) exhausted (थका हुआ) that I could walk no longer (अब और नही). I was tired, I was hungry, I was everything but discouraged (हतोत्साहित, हिम्मत हारना). Just about the time when I reached extreme (चरम-सीमा) physical (शारीरिक) exhaustion (थकान), I came upon a portion (हिस्सा) of a street where the board sidewalk (फूट-पाथ) was considerably (जान-बूझ करके) elevated (उठाया या उभरा गया था).I waited for a few minutes till (जब तक, तब तक) I was sure (निश्चित, आश्वस्त) that no passer-by (राहगीर, राही) could see me, and then crept (सरक गया) under the sidewalk and lay for the night on the ground, with my satchel of clothing for a pillow (तकिया). Nearly (लगभग) all night I could hear the tramp (ख़ट-पट) of feet over my head.




       The next morning I found myself somewhat (कुछ, थोडा-बहुत) refreshed (तरो-ताज़ा). But I was extremely (बेहद, बहुत ज्यादा) hungry. As soon as (जैसे ही) it became light enough (पर्याप्त) for me to see my surroundings (आस-पास, अपने चारो तरफ), I noticed (देखा) that I was near a large ship. It seemed (लगा, प्रतीत हुआ) to be unloading (खाली होना, सामान उतरना) a cargo (बण्डल) of pig-iron (कच्चा लोहा). I went at once (तुरंत) to the vessel (जहाज) and asked the captain to permit (अनुमति) me to help unload (खाली करना) the vessel in order to get money for food. The captain, a white man (गोरा, श्वेत), who seemed to be kind-hearted, consented (सहमति दे दी). I worked long enough to earn money for my breakfast; and it seems to me as I remember (याद करना) it now, to have been about the best breakfast that I have ever (कभी) eaten.

        My work pleased (खुश हुआ) the captain so well ( इतना ज्यादा, बहुत ज्यादा) that he told me that I could continue working for a small amount per day. This I was very glad (खुश) to do. I continued working on this vessel for a number of days. After buying food with my small wages (मजदूरी) there was not much left (बचता था) to pay my way to Hampton. In order to economize (मितव्ययी, कम खर्च) in every way possible, I continued to sleep under the sidewalk.

        When I had saved enough money with which to reach Hampton, I thanked the captain of the vessel for his kindness (उदारता), and started (चल पड़ा) again. Without any unusual (असाधारण) occurrence (घटना) I reached Hampton, with a surplus (बचत) of exactly (पूरा-पूरा) fifty cents with which to begin (शुरू करना) my education. The first sight (झलक) of the large, three-story brick (इंटों से बनी) school building seemed to have rewarded (पुरस्कृत) me for all that I had undergone (झेला, सहन किया) in order to reach the place. The sight of it seemed to give me new life.

       As soon as possible after reaching the grounds of the Hampton Institute (संस्था), I presented (पेश किया, प्रस्तुत किया) myself before the headteacher for assignment (दाखिला, नामांकन) to a class. Having been so long (बहुत लम्बे समय से) without proper food, a bath, and change of clothing, I did not, of course (बेशक), make a very favorable (अनुकूल, हितकारी) impression upon her. I could see at once that there were doubts (संदेह) in her mind about the wisdom of admitting me as a student. For some time she did not refuse (इनकार करना) to admit me, neither (न ही) did she decide in my favour (पक्ष में, हित में). I continued to linger (ठहरा रहा, डटा रहा) about her, and to impress (प्रभावित करना) her in all the ways I could with my worthiness (योग्यता, क़ाबलियत). In the meantime (उसी समय) I saw her admitting other students, and that added greatly to my discomfort (बेचैनी). I felt deep down (गहरी वेदना, मानसिक पीड़ा) in my heart, that I could do as well as they if I could only get a chance to show what was in me.

        After some hours had passed, the headteacher said to me, “The adjoining (बगल का) recitation (संगीत-कक्ष) room needs (जरूरत है) sweeping. (झाड़ू लगाने की) Take the broom (झाड़ू) and sweep it.”

       It occurred (लगा, सूझा) to me at once that here was my chance. Never did I receive (स्वीकार किया होगा) an order with more delight (आनंद).

      I swept the recitation room three times, then I got a dusting (पोंछा लगाने वाला) cloth, and I dusted (पोंछा) it four times (चार बार). All the woodwork (लकड़ी की वस्तुएं) around the walls, every bench, table, and desk (छोटी मेज), I went (पोंछा) over four times with my dusting cloth. Besides (इसके अतिरिक्त), every piece of furniture (लकड़ी से बने सामान) had been moved and every closet (आलमारी) and corner (कोना) in the room had been thoroughly (पूरी तरह से) cleaned. I had the feeling that in a large measure (काफी हद तक) my future depended (निर्भर था) upon the impression (छाप, प्रभाव) I made upon the teacher in the cleaning of that room. When I was through (कर चूका) I reported (सूचना दी) to the headteacher. She was a “Yankee” (यांक राज्य की रहने वाली) woman who knew just(तुरंत) where to look for dirt (धूल). She went into the room and inspected (जाँच-पड़ताल) the floor (फर्श) and closets; then she took her handkerchief (दस्ती, रूमाल) and rubbed (रगड़ी) it on the woodwork about the walls and over the table and benches. When she was unable (असफल रहीं) to find one bit of dirt on the floor or a particle (कण) of dust on any of the furniture, she quietly(शांत मन से, धीरे से ) remarked (बोलीं), “I guess you will do to enter(प्रवेश, दाखिला) this institution.”

       I was one of the happiest (सबसे ज्यादा खुश) souls on earth. The sweeping of that room was my college examination. I have passed several examinations since then, but I have always felt that this was the best one I ever passed.

हिन्दी में अनुवाद देखें

Thomas Hardy Important Questions (Part 1)

Thomas Hardy Important Questions (Part 1)

Select the correct option:

1- Thomas Hardy was died of

(a)- Tuberculosis

(b)- Cancer

(c)- Cholera

(d)- Pleurisy*

2- Who has classified Hardy’s novels under the heads: Pastoral Tragedies, Pastoral Comedies, Pastoral Romances and Pastoral Extravaganza?

(a)- Thomas Hardy

(b)- Hugh Walker

(c)- A. C. Rickett*

(d)- None of these

3- How classified Wessex novels under the heads: ‘Novels of character and Environment’, ‘Romances and Fantasies’ and ‘Novels of Ingenuity and Experiment’?

(a)- Hardy Himself*

(b)- Compton Rickett

(c)- Hugh Walker

(d)- None of these

4- Thomas Hardy’s religious beliefs are the mixture of:

(a)- Agnosticism and Spiritism*

(b)- Spiritualism

(c)- Tantrism

(d)- Agnosticism

5- Which novel is the result of Hardy’s courtship with his first wife? This is the only novel that is without the touch of his pessimism.

(a)- A Pair of Blue Eyes         

(b)- The Return of the Native

(c)- Far From the Madding Crowd*

(d)- None of these

6- This was the novel in which Hardy introduced Wessex. It became so popular that Hardy thought of pursuing a literary career and giving up architectural work. Which novel?

(a)- A Pair of Blue Eyes

(b)- Far From the Madding Crowd*

(c)- Mayor of Casterbridge

(d)- None of these

7- In a novel of Hardy two rivals for the same woman return to England and find that they are traveling on the train that carries her coffin. Which novel is this?

(a)- Desperate Remedies

(b)- Jude the Obscure

(c)- A Pair of Blue Eyes*

(d)- None of these

8- Thomas Hardy fell ill with pleurisy in December 1927. When did he die?

(a)- 11 February 1928

(b)- 11 December 1927

(c)- 11 March 1928

(d)- 11 January 1928*

9- What is the sub-title of Tess of the d’Urbervilles?

(a)- A Pure Woman: Faithfully Presented*

(b)- An Impure Woman: Unfaithfully Presented

(c)- An Impure Woman: Faithfully Presented

(d)- None of these

10- ‘Desperate Remedies’ was the result of the inspiration form:

(a)- Tennyson

(b)- Trollope

(c)- George Meredith*

(d)- None of these

11- Stephen Smith is a young architect who falls in love with Elfride, the blue eyed daughter of the Vicar. In which novel of Hardy does he appear?

(a)- Under the Greenwood Tree

(b)- A Pair of Blue Eyes*

(c)- Far From the Madding Crowd

(d)- None of these

12- A Pair of Blue Eyes, The Trumpet Major, Two on a Tower and The Well Beloved are included in:

(a)- Novels of Ingenuity and Experiment

(b)- The Last Novels

(c)- Romances and Fantasies*

(d)- None of these

13- In the novel ‘The Mayor of Casterbridge, there is the hay trusser who sells his wife Susan to Newson for five guineas in a fair held in Weyden Priors. Later he becomes the Mayor. Find him out.

(a)- Donald Farfrae

(b)- Michael Henchard*

(c)- Gabriel Oak

(d)- Jude

14- In the ‘Mayor of Casterbridge’ Lucetta Templeman, a Jersey girl comes to marry Henchard but marries his rival. Who is his rival in love and business?

(a)- Donald Farfrae*

(b)- Jude

(c)- Oak

(d)- None of these

15- After the death of Lucetta, Farfrae marries:

(a)- Sue

(b)- Tess

(c)- Elizabeth Jane*

(d)- Bathsheba

Thomas Hardy Objective Question (Part 2)

Thomas Hardy Objective Question (Part 2)

16- Who are the hero and heroine of the novel Jude the Obscure?

(a)- Farefree and Elizabeth

(b)- Lucetta and Henchard

(c)- Susan and Jude

(d)- Jude Fawley and Sue Bridehead*

17- Dick Dewy and Fancy Day appear in:

(a)- Under the Greenwood Tree*

(b)- A Pair of Blue Eyes

(c)- Far From The Madding Crowd

(d)- None of these

18- Bathsheba is the heroine of:

(a)- Desperate Remedies

(b)- Far From The Madding Crowd*

(c)- A pair of Blue Eyes

(d)- None of these

19- In the end of the novel, Bathsheba fell in love with Sergeant Troy and married him. But he deserts her. There is one lover named Boldwood who murdered Troy. With whom finally does she marry?

(a)- Gabriel Oak*

(b)- Henchard

(c)- Jude

(d)- None of these

20- Tess falls in love with Angel Clare who wants to marry her. She wants to tell about the sin before marriage. What does she do?

(a)- She writes a letter of confession*     

(b)- She communicates this over phone

(c)- She confesses before him

(d)- None of these

21- Jude the Obscure had been very controversial novel. Hardy gave up novel writing on account of hostile reception. Finally he took shelter in:

(a)- Poetry*

(b)- Drama

(c)- Short Story

(d)- None of these

22- Egdon Heath becomes a part of the conflict, patent and variable as a human character. In which novel does it appear?

(a)- The Mayor of Casterbridge

(b)- The Return of the Native*

(c)- Jude the Obscure

(d)- None of these

23- Who returns to Egdon Heath and decides to become a schoolmaster?

(a)- Henchard

(b)- Farfrae

(c)- Clym Yeobright*

(d)- Gabriel Oak

24- Who wants to marry Thomasin in the novel The Return of the Native?

(a)- Diggory Venn, the reddleman*

(b)- Damon Wildeve

(c)- Clym Yeobright

(d)- None of these

25- Who brings a gold finch at marriage of Elizabeth Jane in the novel The Mayor of Casterbridge?

(a)- Henchard*

(b)- Farfrae

(c)- Abel Whittle

(d)- None of these

26- “Done because we are too many” The famous line appears in:

(a)- A Pair of Blue Eyes

(b)- Desperate Remedies

(c)- Jude the Obscure*

(d)- None of these

27- The wealthy widow in The Wood Landers is:

(a)- Grace Melbury

(b)- Lucetta

(c)- Felice Charmond*

(d)- None of these

28- Tess is arrested on the charge of murder and is ultimately sentenced to death. Whom does she kill?

(a)- Abel

(b)- Oak

(c)- Alec*

(d)- None of these

29- Jude falls in love with a woman of animal passion. Who is she?

(a)- Sue Bridehood

(b)- Bathsheba

(c)- Arabella Donn*

(d)- None of these

30- Whose daughter is Tess?

(a)- Henchard

(b)- Jude

(c)- John Durbyfield *

(d)- None of these

‘Character of A Happy Life’ Explanation in Hindi

Character of A Happy Life

By- Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639)

Read this poem in English

1

How happy is he born or taught

That serveth not another’s will:

Whose armour is his honest thought,

And simple truth his utmost skill!

जो व्यक्ति यह सीख गया है कि दुसरे के इच्छा के अनुसार कार्य नही करना चाहिए, अथवा वह दुसरो के अनुसार कार्य नहीं करता है, वह इस संसार में जन्म लेकर कितन खुश है! अर्थात बहुत खुश हैl

2

Whose passions not his master are:

Whose soul is still prepared for death;

Untied unto the world with care

Of princely love or vulgar breath;

वह व्यक्ति जिसका अपने संवेग (काम, क्रोध, भय, हर्ष, लोभ) पर पूरा नियंत्रण रखता है, अर्थात उसके संवेग उसपर नियंत्रण नहीं रखते, अर्थात जो जो अपने संवेग को काबू में रखता है, सोच-समझ कर कार्य करता है, जिसकी आत्मा मृत्यु से नहीं डरती अर्थात सच व उचित के लिए वह हमेशा मरने के लिए तत्पर रहता है, जो इस संसार में बड़े लोगों के प्रेम-सम्बंध को खोने और जन-साधारण से आलोचना मिलने की परवाह नही करता, निश्चित रूप से वह अपने जीवन में बहुत सुखी रहता हैl

3

Who hath his life from rumours freed,

Whose consceience is his strong retreat;

Whose state can neither flatterers feed’

Nor ruin makes oppressors great;

जिसने अपने जीवन को अफवाहों से मुक्त कर लिया है, अर्थात जो अफवाहों पर ध्यान नही देता, जो सच है, सही है, उचित है उस पर अडिग रहता है, जिसका अंतःकरण उसका मजबूत शरण-स्थल है प्रबल वापसी है अर्थात सुख-दुःख, मुसीबत या भ्रम की स्थिति में वह अपने आत्मा की सुनाता है; जो अपने समृधि या सुख के दिनों में चापलूसों से दूर रहता है, अर्थात जिसकी अच्छी स्थिति चापलूसों को आमंत्रित नहीं करती न ही उसकी दयनीय स्थित या दुख की परिस्थति उसके विरोध करने वाले को महान बनती है, अर्थात जो न किसी से फालतू दोस्ती रखता है न ही किसी से दुश्मनी, वह इस संसार में सबसे सुखी होता हैl

4

Who envies none whom chance doth raise

Nor vice; who never understood

How deepest wounds are given with praise;

Nor rules of state, but rules of good;

जो किसी ऐसे व्यक्ति से इर्ष्या नहीं करता न ही ऐसे व्यक्ति से दुराचार करता है जिसको भाग्य ने सफल बना दिया हो या जिसको बिना मेहनत के भाग्य से ही बहुत कुछ हासिल हुआ हो, अर्थात जो दूसरों की सफलता से जलन न रखता हो, जो यह नही समझता कि प्रसंशा के घाव कितने गहरे होते हैं अर्थात वह झूठी प्रसंशा से प्रभावित नहीं होताl जो किसी राज्य के नियमों की परवाह नही करता बल्कि अच्छाई के नियमों का पालन करता है, वह व्यक्ति अपने जीवन में सबसे सुखी रहता हैl

5

Who God doth late and early pray

More of his grace than gifts to lend;

Who entertains the harmless day

With a well-chosen book or friend;

जो व्यक्ति ईश्वर से उपहार प्राप्त करने के बजाय ईश्वर की कृपा पाने के लिए देर-सबेर ईश्वर की वंदना/प्रार्थना कर लेता है, अर्थात ईश्वर की प्रार्थना किसी फल की प्राप्ति के लिए नहीं करता, जो व्यक्ति अपना खाली समय किसी अच्छे दोस्त के साथ या किसी अच्छी किताब को पढने में व्यतीत करता है, वह अपने जीवन में बहुत सुखी रहता हैl

6

This man is free from servile bands

Of hope to rise’ or fear to fall;

Lord of himself, though not of lands;

And having nothing, he hath all.

ऐसा व्यक्ति दासता के बंधन से मुक्त होता है, वह जीवन में उत्थान-पतन की आशाओं व चिंताओं से मुक्त होता हैl यद्यपि वह जमीन-जायदाद अर्थात भौतिक संपत्ति का मालिक न हो फिर भी वह अपने आप का, अपने सुख, आत्मा, मन और तन का मालिक होता हैl उसके पास कुछ भौतिक संपत्ति कुछ भी न होते हुए भी उसके पास सब-कुछ होता है अर्थात वह दुनिया की सबसे बड़ी दौलत सुख-शांति का मालिक होता हैl

Read this poem in English

Character of A Happy Life

Character of A Happy Life

By- Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639)

हिन्दी में व्याख्या देखें

1

How happy is he born or taught

That serveth not another’s will:

Whose armour is his honest thought,

And simple truth his utmost skill!

2

Whose passions not his master are:

Whose soul is still prepared for death;

Untied unto the world with care

Of princely love or vulgar breath;

3

Who hath his life from rumours freed,

Whose consceience is his strong retreat;

Whose state can neither flatterers feed’

Nor ruin makes oppressors great;

4

Who envies none whom chance doth raise

Nor vice; who never understood

How deepest wounds are given with praise;

Nor rules of state, but rules of good;

5

Who God doth late and early pray

More of his grace than gifts to lend;

Who entertains the harmless day

With a well-chosen book or friend;

6

This man is free from servile bands

Of hope to rise’ or fear to fall;

Lord of himself, though not of lands;

And having nothing, he hath all.

Ode to a Nightingale in Hindi

Summary of Ode to a Nightingale in Hindi

Ode to a Nightingale Read in English

१- Ode to a Nightingale की रचना 1819 में जॉन कीट्स द्वारा की गई थी

2- इसकी रचना तब हुई जब जॉन कीट्स अपने मित्र चार्ल्स ब्राउन के साथ रह रहे थे।

3- कुछ लोगों ने कहा कि लंदन में हैम्पस्टेड के स्पैनियार्ड्स इन के बगीचे में ओड लिखा हुआ हैl

4- जॉन कीट्स के मित्र चार्ल्स आर्मिटेज ब्राउन के अनुसार, कीट्स ने वेंटवर्थ प्लेस स्थित अपने घर के बगीचे में बेर के पेड़ के नीचे ओड लिखा।

5- जॉन कीट्स ने एक दिन में ओड लिखा।

6- यह कविता पहली बार जुलाई 1819 में एनल्स ऑफ द फाइन आर्ट्स में प्रकाशित हुई थी।

7- जॉन कीट्स ने 1819 के वसंत में चार्ल्स ब्राउन के बगीचे में एक बुलबुल को देखा।

8- इसने बगीचे में एक बेर के पेड़ में अपना घोंसला बनाई थी। हर दिन, यह मधुर गाती थी।

9- जॉन कीट्स को इसके गाने में एक सुकून और आनंद की अनुभूति हुई।

10 – एक दिन जॉन कीट्स ने नाश्ते की कुर्सी ली और बेर के पेड़ के नीचे 2 या 3 घंटे तक बुलबुल को देखने और उसका मधुर गीत सुनने के लिए बैठे रहे।

११ – ३ घंटे के बाद वह हाथ में कागज के कुछ टुकड़े लेकर घर लौटा, उसने चुपचाप उसे किताबों के पीछे फेंक दिया।

१२ – वे स्क्रैप पेपर संख्या में ४ या ५ थे।

१३- जॉन कीट्स ने सुंदर कोकिला के बारे में और उसके मधुर गीत के बारे में अपनी काव्य भावनाओं की रचना की थी।

14- यह एक व्यक्तिगत कविता है जो कीट्स की नकारात्मक क्षमता की स्थिति में यात्रा का वर्णन करती है।

१५- इस ओड में, हमें पता चलता है कि जॉन कीट्स के आनंद का स्वर और उनका आशावादी स्वभाव बदल गया था। वह ode में उदास और निराशावादी महसूस करता है।

16- यहाँ जॉन कीट्स बताते हैं कि सुख स्थायी नहीं हो सकता और मृत्यु जीवन का एक अनिवार्य हिस्सा है।

17- ओड टू ए नाइटिंगेल में 80 लाइनें होती हैं। यह जॉन कीट्स का सबसे लंबा ओड है। “Ode to a Nightingale” को आठ अलग-अलग छंदों में व्यवस्थित किया गया है, प्रत्येक दस पंक्तियों में।

18- इसमें ‘e on a Grecian Urn’ और ‘Ode on a Melancholy’ शामिल हैं।

19- इस कविता की शुरुआत एक अंधेरे जंगल में खड़े एक वक्ता से होती है। वक्ता एक बुलबुल का सुंदर गीत सुन रहा था।

20- कविता समय, मृत्यु, सौंदर्य, प्रकृति और मानवीय कष्टों की ओर ध्यान आकर्षित करती है (वक्ता इनसे बचना चाहता है और वह आराम पाने की कोशिश कर रहा है)।

21- उसने बुलबुल का गीत सुना और बुलबुल के गीत में सुकून पाया।
22- बुलबुल का गीत सुनकर उन्होंने अपने आप को अलग-थलग महसूस किया।
23- उन्होंने महसूस किया कि कविता बुलबुल और उसके गीत के साथ घनिष्ठ संबंध बनाएगी।
२४ - कुछ समय बाद बुलबुल उड़ गई, बुलबुल के गीत के इस वास्तविक अनुभव के बारे में वक्ता अनिश्चित है। उसने अपने आप से पूछा कि क्या दृष्टि वास्तविक थी या दिवास्वप्नl
25- शुरुआत में स्पीकर ने अपने दिल का दर्द बताया। उसका दिल खुशी से तड़पता है और उसकी इंद्रियों को एक दवा की तरह सुन्न कर देता है।                        
26- उसे ऐसा लगा जैसे उसने जहरीले हेमलॉक पौधे से पी ली हो या जैसे उसने अभी-अभी किसी तरह की अफीम का नशा किया हो और लेथे के पानी में गिर गया हो। (ग्रीक पौराणिक नदी जो मनुष्य को सब कुछ भूल जाती है।) 
27- इस कविता में कवि पक्षी के मधुर गीत को सुनकर अपने हृदय में उठती अपनी भावनाओं को व्यक्त करता है।
28- वह चिड़िया के सुंदर स्थान की दुनिया की देखभाल की दुनिया से भागने की इच्छा से भर जाता है।
29- कविता मानव जीवन की दुखद तस्वीर प्रस्तुत करती है। इसमें कीट्स के जीवन की निराशा और निराशा को दर्शाया गया है। 
30- जब जॉन कीट्स ने यह कविता लिखी तो उनका हृदय दुख से भर गया, क्योंकि-
टॉम कीट्स, उनके भाई की मृत्यु हो गई थी।
उनके भाई रॉबर्ट कीट्स विदेश चले गए थे।
जॉन कीट्स अपने प्रिय फैनी ब्राउन के कारण हुए रहस्य और पीड़ा से पीड़ित थे।
31- बुलबुल का गीत शराब, हरियाली और देशी नृत्य के मसौदे की उनकी इच्छा को जगाता है।
३२ वह बुलबुल के साथ धुँधले जंगल में गायब होना चाहता है और मिट जाता है।
33- वह संसार के कष्टों - दुखों, चिंताओं, रोग और बुढ़ापे को भूल जाना चाहता है।
34- कवि बुलबुल से बात करता है, वह उसे उड़ने के लिए कहता है ताकि वह उसका पीछा कर सके। वह बताता है कि वह कल्पना और काव्य प्रतिभा के अपने दृश्यहीन पंखों के साथ उड़ जाएगा। 
35- वह पक्षी की पहचान ड्रायड (पेड़ की ग्रीक देवी) से करता है। कवि ने पक्षी को प्रकृति की सार्वभौम आवाज का प्रतीक और एक अमर संगीतमय आवाज के रूप में सोचकर पक्षी को अमर कर दिया।
३६- कवि बुलबुल की आवाज को बेचैनी, तनाव, दुख और दर्द की दवा के रूप में प्रस्तुत करता है।
37- कवि बाहरी दुनिया को, अपने और अपने दर्द को, पक्षी के बारे में अपनी कल्पना और उसकी मधुर आवाज के कारण भूल जाता है।
38- कविता के अंतिम भाग में कवि को पता चलता है कि बुलबुल और उसका मधुर गीत अमर है। ये लंबे अतीत में थे और भविष्य में रहेंगे। अतीत में किसानों और सम्राटों ने इसका आनंद लिया है।
39- अन्त में कवि को यह अनुभव होता है कि वह अपनी कल्पना के सहारे संसार के दुखों और कष्टों से स्वयं को मुक्त नहीं कर सकता।
४०- लास्ट में वक्ता एक बार फिर अपने अनुभव के बारे में अनिश्चित था कि यह सच्चा अनुभव था या यह दिन का सपना था।
41- इस प्रकार हम कह सकते हैं कि ओड टू ए नाइटिंगेल कला का प्रतीक है और नश्वर जीवन को समाप्त करता है।

Ode to a Nightingale Read in English

Ode to a Nightingale, by John Keats

Ode to a Nightingale Important Points

Ode to a Nightingale हिन्दी में पढ़ें

1- Ode to Nightingale was composed in 1819, by John Keats

2- It was composed when John Keats was staying with Charles Brown, his friend.

3- Some people said that the ode is written in the garden of the Spaniards Inn, Hampstead in London

4- According to John Keats’ friend Charles Armitage Brown, Keats wrote the ode under the plum tree in the garden of his house at Wentworth Place.

5- John Keats wrote the ode in one day.

6- This poem was first published in Annals of the Fine Arts in July 1819.

7- John Keats saw a nightingale in Charles Brown’s garden in the spring of 1819.

8- It had built its nest in a plum tree in the garden. Every day, it sang sweetly.

9- John Keats felt a tranquil and joy in its song.

10 – One day John Keats took his breakfast chair and sat for 2 or 3 hours under the plum tree to see the nightingale and to listen its melodious song.

11 – After 3 hours he returned into house with some scraps of paper in his hand, he quietly thrust it behind the books.

12 – Those scrap papers were 4 or 5 in number.

13- John Keats had composed his poetic feelings about the beautiful nightingale and about its sweet song.

14- It is a personal poem which describes Keats’ journey into the state of Negative Capability.

15- In this Ode, we realize that the tone of John Keats’ pleasure and his optimistic nature was changed. He feels gloomy and pessimistic in the ode.

16- Here John Keats tells that pleasure can’t last and death is an inevitable part of life.

17- Ode to a Nightingale has 80 lines. It is the longest ode by John Keats. “Ode to a Nightingale” is arranged into eight different stanzas, each of ten lines.

18- It includes ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’ and ‘Ode on Melancholy’.

19- This poem starts with a speaker standing in a dark forest. The speaker was listening to the beautiful song of a nightingale.

20- The poem draws attention to time, death, beauty, nature and human sufferings (the speaker wants to escape from these and he is trying to find comfort).

21- He listened the song of the nightingale and find comfort in the nightingale’s song.

22- Listening the song of the nightingale, he felt himself isolated figure.

23- He felt that poetry will make a closer relation to nightingale and to its song.

24- After some time the nightingale flew away, the speaker unsure about this real experience of the song of the nightingale. He asked himself whether the vision was real or a daydream?

25- In the beginning the speaker declared his heartache. His heart aches with the joy and numbs his senses like a drug.

26- He felt like he had drunk from the poisonous hemlock plant or like he had just taken some kind of opiate drug and fallen into the waters of Lethe. (Greek Mythological river that makes a man forget everything.)

27- In this poem the poet expresses his own feelings rising in his heart at the hearing of the melodious song of the bird.

28- He is filled with a desire to escape from the world of caring to the world of beautiful place of the bird.

29- The poem presents the tragic picture of human life. It depicts pessimism and dejection of Keats’ life.

30- When John Keats wrote this piece of poetry, his heart was full of sorrow, because-

  1. Tom Keats, his brother had died.
  2. His brother Robert Keats had gone abroad.
  3. John Keats was suffering under the suspense and agony caused by his beloved Fanny Browne.

31- The song of the nightingale kindles his desire for a draught of wine, greenery and country dances.

32- He longs to disappear into the dim forest with the nightingale and fade away.

33- He wants to forget about the afflictions of the world-miseries, worries, disease and old age.

34- The poet talks to the nightingale, he tells her to fly away so that he could follow her. He tells that he will fly with his viewless wings of imagination and poetic talent.

35- He identifies the bird with dryad (The Greek Goddess of the tree). The poet immortalizes the bird by thinking of the bird as the symbol of the universal voice of nature and an undying musical voice.

36- The poet presents the voice of the nightingale as the medicine of the discomfort, tension, miseries and pain.

37- The poet forgets the outside world, himself and his pains, due to his imagination about the bird and its sweet voice.

38- In the last part of the poem, the poet realises that the nightingale and its sweet song are immortal. These were in the long past and will in the future. The peasants and the emperors have enjoyed it in the past.

39- In the last, the poet realises that he can’t escape himself from the world miseries and the pains with the help of his imagination.

40- In the last the speaker once again was unsure about his experience whether it was true experience or it was day dream.

41- Thus we can say that Ode to a Nightingale is a symbol of art and outlasts mortal life.

Ode to a Nightingale हिन्दी में पढ़ें

Negative Capability हिन्दी में

Negative Capability हिन्दी में

यदि आप English Literature में रूचि रखते हैं तो ये पोस्ट आपको जरूर पढना चाहिएl

If you are interested in English Literature, you should read this post.

Negative Capability in English

Negative Capability is a term (phrase) first used by John Keats in 1817. John Keats introduced the concept of Negative Capability to his brothers, George Keats and Thomas Keats to explain the capacity of the greatest writers to pursue a vision of artistic beauty even when it leads them into intellectual confusion and uncertainty. He introduced it through a letter on 21st December 1817. It is a theory first articulated by John Keats about the artist’s access to the truth with pressure and framework of logic or science. John Keats wrote the letter when he was returning from the Christmas pantomime with his friends.

Negative Capability एक शब्द (वाक्यांश) है जिसे पहली बार 1817 में जॉन कीट्स द्वारा इस्तेमाल किया गया था। जॉन कीट्स ने अपने भाइयों, जॉर्ज कीट्स और थॉमस कीट्स को नकारात्मक क्षमता की अवधारणा पेश की, ताकि महानतम लेखकों की कलात्मक सुंदरता की दृष्टि को आगे बढ़ाने की क्षमता की व्याख्या की जा सके। यह उन्हें बौद्धिक भ्रम और अनिश्चितता की ओर ले जाता है। उन्होंने इसे २१ दिसंबर १८१७ को एक पत्र के माध्यम से पेश किया। यह पहली बार जॉन कीट्स द्वारा व्यक्त किया गया एक सिद्धांत है जो दबाव और तर्क या विज्ञान के ढांचे के साथ कलाकार की सच्चाई तक पहुंच के बारे में है। जॉन कीट्स ने यह पत्र तब लिखा था जब वह अपने दोस्तों के साथ क्रिसमस पैंटोमाइम से लौट रहे थे।

He did not use the word’ negative capability’ in an offensive sense, but to get over the idea that a person’s potential can be defined by what he or she does not possess- in this case, a need to be clever, a determination to work everything out.


उन्होंने ‘नकारात्मक क्षमता’ शब्द का इस्तेमाल आपत्तिजनक अर्थ में नहीं किया, बल्कि इस विचार को दूर करने के लिए किया कि किसी व्यक्ति की क्षमता को उसके पास जो नहीं है उससे परिभाषित किया जा सकता है- इस मामले में, चतुर होने की जरूरत है, एक दृढ़ संकल्प सब कुछ काम करो।

Negative Capability, a writer’s ability, “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously”, to accept ‘uncertainties, mysteries, doubts without any irritable reaching after fact and reason.

नकारात्मक क्षमता, एक लेखक की क्षमता, "जो शेक्सपियर के पास इतनी अधिक थी", 'अनिश्चितताओं, रहस्यों, संदेहों को बिना किसी चिड़चिड़ाहट के तथ्य और कारण के बाद स्वीकार करने के लिए।

He described the word Negative Capability as when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason. His notion of negative capability has been influential for those working outside of aesthetics including scholars.


उन्होंने नकारात्मक क्षमता शब्द का वर्णन तब किया जब कोई व्यक्ति अनिश्चितताओं, रहस्यों, संदेहों में रहने में सक्षम होता है, बिना किसी चिड़चिड़े तथ्य और कारण के। नकारात्मक क्षमता की उनकी धारणा विद्वानों सहित सौंदर्यशास्त्र के बाहर काम करने वालों के लिए प्रभावशाली रही है।

A writer or person possessing negative capability is objective and emotionally detached. Works of a writer possessing negative capability may have beauties and depths that make conventional considerations of truth and morality irrelevant.

एक लेखक या व्यक्ति जिसमें नकारात्मक क्षमता होती है, वस्तुनिष्ठ और भावनात्मक रूप से अलग होता है। नकारात्मक क्षमता वाले लेखक के कार्यों में सुंदरता और गहराई हो सकती है जो सत्य और नैतिकता के पारंपरिक विचारों को अप्रासंगिक बना देती है।

He said that great poets should have the willingness to remain in doubt and uncertainty and not to resolve conflicts or doubts. Mysteries, doubts and uncertainties are the best to open to imagination power. In this way, the element of doubt and ambiguity produced romanticism.

उन्होंने कहा कि महान कवियों में संदेह और अनिश्चितता में रहने की इच्छा होनी चाहिए न कि संघर्षों या शंकाओं को हल करने की। कल्पना शक्ति को खोलने के लिए रहस्य, संदेह और अनिश्चितताएं सर्वोत्तम हैं। इस प्रकार, संदेह और अस्पष्टता के तत्व ने रूमानियत पैदा की।

According to the Bedford Glossary of Literary and Critical Terms, in order for a poet to ‘perceive reality in all its manifold complexity, to embrace the unsure and ambiguous, to avoid the temptation to rationalise all uncertainties, to negate one’s own personality and prejudices”, he or she must “Remain open-minded.  Keats believed that Shakespeare possessed the quality of negative capability.

बेडफोर्ड ग्लोसरी ऑफ लिटरेरी एंड क्रिटिकल टर्म्स के अनुसार, एक कवि के लिए 'अपनी सभी जटिलता में वास्तविकता को समझने के लिए, अनिश्चित और अस्पष्ट को गले लगाने के लिए, सभी अनिश्चितताओं को तर्कसंगत बनाने के प्रलोभन से बचने के लिए, अपने स्वयं के व्यक्तित्व और पूर्वाग्रहों को नकारने के लिए', उसे "खुले दिमाग से रहना चाहिए। कीट्स का मानना ​​था कि शेक्सपियर में नकारात्मक क्षमता का गुण है।

Negative Capability

Negative Capability

If you are interested in English Literature, you should read this post.

यदि आप English Literature में रूचि रखते हैं तो ये पोस्ट आपको जरूर पढना चाहिएl

Negative Capability हिन्दी में पढ़ें

Negative Capability (नकारात्मक क्षमता) is a term शब्द (phrase वाक्यांश) first used by John Keats in 1817. John Keats introduced the concept of Negative Capability to his brothers, George Keats and Thomas Keats to explain the capacity of the greatest writers to pursue (आगे बढ़ाना, पीछा करना) a vision of artistic beauty even when it leads them into intellectual (बौद्धिक) confusion (भ्रम) and uncertainty (अनिश्चितता). He introduced it through a letter on 21st December, 1817. It is a theory first articulated (व्यक्त किया गया) by John Keats about the artist’s access to truth with pressure and framework (ढांचे) of logic or science. John Keats wrote the letter when he was returning from the Christmas pantomime(मूकाभिनय) with his friends.

He did not use the word’ negative capability’ in an offensive (अपमान जनक) sense, but to get over (पहुँचाना, व्यक्त करना) the idea that a person’s potential (क्षमता, संभावना) can be defined by what he or she does not possess- in this case a need to be clever (समझदार), a determination (दृढ निश्चय) to work everything out.

Negative Capability, a writer’s ability, “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously (आधिक्य)”, to accept ‘uncertainties, mysteries, doubts without any irritable (चिडचिडा) reaching after fact and reason’.

He described the word Negative Capability as- when a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after face and reason. His notion (धारणा, विचार) of negative capability has been influential (प्रभावशाली) for those working outside of aesthetics (सौंदर्यशास्त्र) including scholars.

A writer or person possessing (धारण किये हुए) negative capability is objective (वस्तुनिष्ठ) and emotionally (भावनात्मक रूप से) detached (अलग). Works of a writer possessing negative capability may have beauties and depths that make conventional (पारंपरिक) considerations विचारों) of truth and morality (नैतिकता) irrelevant (असंगत, अप्रासंगिक).

He said that great poets should have the willingness (इच्छा, तत्परता) to remain in doubt and uncertainty and not to resolve conflicts or doubts. Mysteries, doubts and uncertainties are the best to open to imagination power. In this way, the element of doubt and ambiguity (अस्पष्टता) produced romanticism.

According to the Bedford Glossary of Literary and Critical Terms, in order for a poet to ‘perceive (समझना) reality in all its manifold (विविध) complexity (जटिलता), to embrace the unsure and ambiguous, to avoid the temptation (प्रलोभन) to rationalise (युक्ति-संगत) all uncertainties, to negate one’s own personality and prejudices (पूर्वाग्रह, ईर्ष्या)”, he or she must “Remain open-minded.  Keats believed that Shakespeare possessed the quality of negative capability.

University Wits

University Wits

It is a group of English Dramatists. They wrote to the 16th Century. They were educated at the Oxford University or Cambridge University. They had great influence on the Elizabethan Literature.

The University Wits Group

  1. John Lyly [1554-1606]
  2. George Peele [1558-1596]
  3. Robert Greene [1558-1592]
  4. Thomas Lodge [1557-1625]
  5. Thomas Nashe [1567-1601]
  6. Thomas Kyd [1557-1594]
  7. Christopher Marlowe [1564-1593]

According to Date of birth

  1. John Lyly [1554-1606]
  2. Thomas Lodge [1557-1625]
  3. Thomas Kyd [1557-1594]
  4. George Peele [1558-1596]
  5. Robert Green [1558-1592]
  6. Christopher Marlowe [1564-1593]
  7. Thomas Nashe [1567-1601]

Trick to Remember

जॉन लाल पीला होकर रोब से गिरा थल पर, थक कर, नशे में, तो कष्ट हुआl

जॉन लाल (John Lyly) पीला (George Peele) होकर रोब से गिरा (Robert Greene) थल पर (Thomas Lodge), थक कर (Thomas Kyd), नशे में (Thomas Nashe), तो कष्ट (Christopher Marlowe) हुआl

Cambridge University

  1. Robert Greene
  2. Christopher Marlowe
  3. Thomas Nashe

Trick to Remember

नशे में, रोब से गिरा, कष्ट हुआl

Oxford University

  1. John Lyly
  2. George Peele
  3. Thomas Lodge
  4. Thomas Kyd

Trick

जॉन लाल पीला होकर, थल पर, थक कर

Use of Should

Should का प्रयोग

वैसे तो shall का Past form ही should होता है l should एक modal auxiliary verb है l should का अर्थ ‘चाहिए ‘ होता है l इसका प्रयोग स्वतंत्र verb के रूप में भी किया जाता है l अर्थात वहां पर यह shall का रूप नहीं होता है l should का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित रूपों में किया जाता है l

(1)- Duty or Obligation(कर्तव्य अथवा नैतिकता) प्रकट करने के लिए

(2)- Condition (शर्त) प्रकट करने के लिए

(3)- Guess (अनुमान) प्रकट करने के लिए

(4)- Possibility (संभावना) व्यक्त करने के लिए

(5)- Advice Or Suggestion ( सलाह अथवा सुझाव)

(6)- Imaginary Conditions (अवास्तविक परिस्थितियाँ)

(7)- Right or Wrong (उचित अथवा अनुचित)

(8)- Lest के बाद should का प्रयोग

(1)- Duty or Moral Obligation(कर्तव्य अथवा नैतिकता) प्रकट करने के लिए

कर्तव्य अथवा नैतिकता प्रकट करने के लिए should का प्रयोग किया जाता है l जिसका formula निम्नलिखित है l

Affirmative- Sub + should + v1 + obj + other.

Examples-

A person should serve his country.  (कर्तव्य)

एक व्यक्ति को अपने देश की सेवा करनी चाहिए l

We should respect our teachers. (नैतिकता)

हमें अपने गुरुओं का आदर करना चाहिए l

Negative- Sub + should + not + v1 + obj + other.

Examples-

A person should not avoid his duties.  (कर्तव्य)

एक व्यक्ति को अपने कर्म से विमुख नहीं होना चाहिए l

We should not insult our teachers. (नैतिकता)

हमें अपने गुरुओं का अनादर नहीं करना चाहिए l

Interrogative- Should + sub + v1 + obj + other + ?

Examples-

Should a person avoid his duties?

क्या एक व्यक्ति को अपने कर्म से विमुख होना चाहिए?

Should we insult our teacher?

क्या हमें अपने गुरुओं का अनादर करना चाहिए?

Interrogative and negative- Should + sub + not + v1 + obj + other +?

Examples-

Should a person not do his duties?

क्या एक व्यक्ति को अपना कर्म नहीं करना चाहिए?

Should we not respect our teacher?

क्या हमें अपने गुरुओं का आदर नहीं करना चाहिए?

(2)- Condition (शर्त) प्रकट करने के लिए

यदि के भाव में शर्त प्रकट करने के लिए भी should का प्रयोग किया जाता है l

Examples:-

Should it rains, he will deny to work.

यदि वर्षा होती है तो वह काम करने से मना कर देगा l

Should he abuses, Ram will beat him.

यदि वह गली देता है तो राम उसे पीटेगा l

(3)- Guess (अनुमान) प्रकट करने के लिए

जब हम चाहिए के अर्थ में अनुमान प्रकट करते है तो चाहिए के लिए should का प्रयोग किया जाता है l

Examples-

Ram should finish the work in two hours.

राम को दो घंटे में कार्य समाप्त कर देना चाहिए l

They should return from Delhi within a week.

उनको एक सप्ताह के अन्दर लौट आना चाहिए l

(4)- Possibility (संभावना) के व्यक्त करने लिए

Should से संभावना के अर्थ में भी चाहिए का अर्थ व्यक्त किया जाता है

Examples-

It should rain.

बरसात होनी चाहिए या बरसात होने की संभावना है l

India should win the match.

भारत को मैच जीतना चाहिए या भारत के मैच जीतने की संभावना है l

(5)- Advice Or Suggestion (सलाह अथवा सुझाव) व्यक्त करने लिए

Charles Dickens’ का जीवन-परिचय

Charles Dickens’ का जीवन-परिचय

Born- Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England in 1812.

चार्ल्स डिकेंस का जन्म 1812 में पोर्ट्समाउथ, हैम्पशायर, इंग्लैंड में हुआ था।

Father and Mother- His father’s name was John Dickens and his Mother’s name was Elizabeth Dickens. His father was a clerk in the Naval Pay office. In 1824, Dickens’ father was imprisoned for debt. The entire family, except Dickens, were sent to Marshalsea Prison along with their father. Dickens was sent to work in a blacking warehouse, where he pasted labels on bottles.

उनके पिता का नाम जॉन डिकेंस था और उनकी माता का नाम एलिजाबेथ डिकेंस था। उनके पिता नौसेना वेतन कार्यालय में क्लर्क थे। 1824 में, डिकेंस के पिता को कर्ज के लिए कैद कर लिया गया था। डिकेंस को छोड़कर पूरे परिवार को उनके पिता के साथ मार्शलसी जेल भेज दिया गया था। डिकेंस को ब्लैकिंग वेयरहाउस में काम करने के लिए भेजा गया, जहां उन्होंने बोतलों पर लेबल चिपकाए।

Education- Dickens attended a school in London between 1824 and 1827 when his family condition improved. Dickens was forced to leave school again in 1827 when his family was evicted from their home in Somers Town for unpaid rent dues. Dickens learned shorthand and began his career as a journalist, He worked as a parliamentary reporter for two London newspapers.

डिकेंस ने १८२४ और १८२७ के बीच लंदन के एक स्कूल में पढ़ाई की, जब उनकी पारिवारिक स्थिति में सुधार हुआ। डिकेंस को १८२७ में फिर से स्कूल छोड़ने के लिए मजबूर किया गया था जब उनके परिवार को सोमरस टाउन में उनके घर से अवैतनिक किराए के लिए बेदखल कर दिया गया था। डिकेंस ने शॉर्टहैंड सीखा और एक पत्रकार के रूप में अपना करियर शुरू किया, उन्होंने लंदन के दो अखबारों के लिए संसदीय रिपोर्टर के रूप में काम किया।

Love Life-Charles Dickens fell in love with Maria Beadnell. Dickens’ social status was low so Maria’s father objected to the match.

चार्ल्स डिकेंस को मारिया बीडनेल से प्यार हो गया। डिकेंस की सामाजिक स्थिति निम्न थी इसलिए मारिया के पिता ने मैच का विरोध किया।

First Literary Experiment- Dickens wrote a series of sketches about London life for a newspaper ‘Morning Chronicle’. This gave rise to ‘Sketches by Boz’. This was his first literary experiment. Boz was his family name which was adopted as a pseudonym. It was followed by his first novel- ‘The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club’ in 1836-37. It is considered that the novel was published in serial form in monthly installments.

डिकेंस ने 'मॉर्निंग क्रॉनिकल' अखबार के लिए लंदन के जीवन के बारे में कई रेखाचित्र लिखे। इसने 'स्केच बाय बोज़' को जन्म दिया। यह उनका पहला साहित्यिक प्रयोग था। बोज़ उनका पारिवारिक नाम था जिसे छद्म नाम के रूप में अपनाया गया था। इसके बाद उनका पहला उपन्यास- 'द मरणोपरांत पेपर्स ऑफ द पिकविक क्लब' 1836-37 में आया। ऐसा माना जाता है कि उपन्यास मासिक किश्तों में धारावाहिक रूप में प्रकाशित हुआ था।

Dickens was the first to make serialization of novels profitable and was able to expand his audience to include those, who could not normally afford such literary works.

डिकेंस उपन्यासों के क्रमांकन को लाभदायक बनाने वाले पहले व्यक्ति थे और अपने दर्शकों का विस्तार करने में सक्षम थे ताकि उन लोगों को शामिल किया जा सके, जो आमतौर पर इस तरह के साहित्यिक कार्यों का खर्च नहीं उठा सकते थे।

Matrimonial Life- Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. She was the daughter of the editor of the Evening Chronicle on 2nd April 1836. That marriage was not successful, they separated many years later.

डिकेंस ने कैथरीन होगार्थ से शादी की। वह २ अप्रैल १८३६ को इवनिंग क्रॉनिकल के संपादक की बेटी थीं। वह विवाह सफल नहीं रहा, वे कई साल बाद अलग हो गए।

Literary Career- Dickens’ fame as a novelist was established with his novels- Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby. Oliver Twist is a story of an orphan. This novel was written in response to the New Poor Laws of 1834. He also wrote Christmas stories, out of them the most known is A Christmas Carol.

एक उपन्यासकार के रूप में डिकेंस की प्रसिद्धि उनके उपन्यासों- ओलिवर ट्विस्ट और निकोलस निकलबी से स्थापित हुई थी। ओलिवर ट्विस्ट एक अनाथ की कहानी है। यह उपन्यास १८३४ के न्यू पुअर लॉ के जवाब में लिखा गया था। उन्होंने क्रिसमस की कहानियां भी लिखीं, उनमें से सबसे प्रसिद्ध ए क्रिसमस कैरल है।

Popular Novels-

David Copperfield

Hard Times

A Tale of Two Cities

Great Expectations

Journeys- In 1840s Dickens travelled abroad. At first, he went to America and then through Europe.1850s was the very sad decade for him. His daughter and father died in 1850s. His wife separated from him during that decade. The result was that his writings became more serious.

१८४० के दशक में डिकेंस ने विदेश यात्रा की। पहले वह अमेरिका गया और फिर यूरोप गया। १८५० का दशक उसके लिए बहुत दुखद दशक था। १८५० के दशक में उनकी बेटी और पिता की मृत्यु हो गई। उस दशक के दौरान उनकी पत्नी उनसे अलग हो गईं। इसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि उनका लेखन और अधिक गंभीर हो गया।

Death- Charles Dickens died of a stroke in 1870. He was working on his unfinished novel ‘The Mystery of Edwin Drood’

चार्ल्स डिकेंस की 1870 में एक आघात से मृत्यु हो गई। वह अपने अधूरे उपन्यास 'द मिस्ट्री ऑफ एडविन ड्रूड' पर काम कर रहे थे।
Charles Dickens’ Biography

Charles Dickens’ Biography

Born- Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England in 1812.

Father and Mother- His father’s name was John Dickens and his Mother’s name was Elizabeth Dickens. His father was a clerk in the Naval Pay office. In 1824, Dickens’ father was imprisoned for debt. The entire family, except Dickens, were sent to Marshalsea Prison along with their father. Dickens was sent to work in a blacking warehouse, where he pasted labels on bottles.

Education- Dickens attended a school in London between 1824 and 1827 when his family condition improved. Dickens was forced to leave school again in 1827 when his family was evicted from their home in Somers Town for unpaid rent dues. Dickens learned shorthand and began his career as a journalist, He worked as a parliamentary reporter for two London newspapers.

Love Life-Charles Dickens fell in love with Maria Beadnell. Dickens’ social status was low so Maria’s father objected to the match.

First Literary Experiment- Dickens wrote a series of sketches about London life for a newspaper ‘Morning Chronicle’. This gave rise to ‘Sketches by Boz’. This was his first literary experiment. Boz was his family name which was adopted as a pseudonym. It was followed by his first novel- ‘The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club’ in 1836-37. It is considered that the novel was published in serial form in monthly installments.

Dickens was the first to make serialization of novels profitable and was able to expand his audience to include those, who could not normally afford such literary works.

Matrimonial Life- Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. She was the daughter of the editor of the Evening Chronicle on 2nd April 1836. That marriage was not successful, they separated many years later.

Literary Career- Dickens’ fame as a novelist was established with his novels- Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby. Oliver Twist is a story of an orphan. This novel was written in response to the New Poor Laws of 1834.

He also wrote Christmas stories, out of them the most known is A Christmas Carol.

Popular Novels-

David Copperfield

Hard Times

A Tale of Two Cities

Great Expectations

Journeys- In 1840s Dickens travelled abroad. At first, he went to America and then through Europe.1850s was the very sad decade for him. His daughter and father died in 1850s. His wife separated from him during that decade. The result was that his writings became more serious.

Death- Charles Dickens died of a stroke in 1870. He was working on his unfinished novel ‘The Mystery of Edwin Drood’

John Keats का जीवन-परिचय

John Keats का जीवन-परिचय हिन्दी में (1795-1821)

John Keats का जीवन-परिचय English में पढ़ें

Birth-

John Keats was born on October 31, 1795, in Moorgate, London. His parents marked his birthday on 29 October and in baptism (ईसाई दीक्षा, नामकरण संस्कार) record his birthday is marked on 31 October. Keats was said to have born in his maternal grandfather’s (नाना) stable (घुडसाल, अस्तबल). He was a great English Romantic lyric poet, devoted his life to the perfection of poetry with vivid imagery and great sensuous (भावमय, कामुक) appeal.

John Keats का जन्म 31 अक्टूबर, 1795 को लंदन के मूरगेट में हुआ था। उनके माता-पिता ने 29 अक्टूबर को उनके जन्मदिन को चिह्नित किया और बपतिस्मा (ईसाई दीक्षा, संस्कार संस्कार) में उनका जन्मदिन 31 अक्टूबर को चिह्नित किया गया। कहा जाता है कि कीट्स का जन्म उनके नाना के अस्तबल में हुआ था। वह एक महान अंग्रेजी रोमांटिक गीत कवि थे, जिन्होंने अपने जीवन को विविध कल्पना और महान कामुक अपील के साथ कविता की पूर्णता के लिए समर्पित कर दिया।

Father-

His father’s name was Thomas Keats. He had 4 children. John Keats was the eldest out of them. John Keats younger siblings (सगे भाई-बहन) were-

उनके पिता का नाम थॉमस कीट्स था। उनके 4 बच्चे थे। जॉन कीट्स उनमें सबसे बड़े थे। जॉन कीट्स छोटे भाई-बहन (सगे भाई-बहन) थे-
  1. George Keats
  2. Thomas Keats
  3. Frances Mary Keats

His father worked in the stable of his father-in-law. His father died from skull (खोपड़ी) fracture (अंग-भंग) after falling from his horse when he was only of 8. Unfortunately, his father died intestate (बिना वसीयतनामा लिखे).

उनके पिता अपने ससुर के अस्तबल में काम करते थे। उनके पिता की खोपड़ी (खोपड़ी) फ्रैक्चर (अंग-भंग) से उनके घोड़े से गिरने के बाद मृत्यु हो गई थी, जब वे केवल 8 वर्ष के थे। दुर्भाग्य से, उनके पिता की मृत्यु हो गई (बिना वसीयतनामा लिखित)।

Mother-

His mother’s name was Frances Jennings. John Keats’ mother died when he was only of 14, six years later of his father’s death. His mother died of Tuberculosis (यक्ष्मा, क्षय रोग) in March 1810.

उनकी माता का नाम फ्रांसिस जेनिंग्स था। जॉन कीट्स की मां की मृत्यु हो गई जब वह अपने पिता की मृत्यु के छह साल बाद केवल 14 वर्ष के थे। मार्च १८१० में उनकी माँ की मृत्यु क्षय रोग (यक्ष्मा, क्षुद्र रोग) से हो गई।

Spouse-

John Keats fell in deeply in love with a French girl, Fanny Browne, but met with sorrow and dejection (निराशा, उदासी). He became engaged to Fanny Browne, but due to money problem and symptoms (लक्षण) of tuberculosis, he never got married. It aggravated (उत्तेजित किया) his tuberculosis (यक्ष्मा, क्षय रोग) and he died.

जॉन कीट्स को एक फ्रांसीसी लड़की, फैनी ब्राउन से बहुत प्यार हो गया, लेकिन उन्हें दुःख और निराशा हुई (निराशा, उप)। उन्होंने फैनी ब्राउन से सगाई कर ली, लेकिन पैसे की समस्या और तपेदिक के लक्षणों (लक्षण) के कारण, उन्होंने कभी शादी नहीं की। इससे उसका तपेदिक (यक्ष्मा, क्षुद्र रोग) बढ़ गया और उसकी मृत्यु हो गई।

Fanny left him all too suddenly on the strange plea (बहाना, दलील) that Keats was not a few inches taller than her.

फैनी ने अचानक उसे इस अजीब दलील (बहाना,) पर छोड़ दिया कि कीट्स उससे कुछ इंच लंबा नहीं था।

Education-

The first time he was sent to a local dame school. His parents wished to send their sons to Eton or Harrow, but they could not afford (समर्थ होना) the fees. When he was at his grandparents’ (नाना-नानी) home in Edmonton, he was sent to John Clarke’s school in Enfield.  When he was at Clarke’s school he developed an interest in classics and history, the interest was with him throughout his life.

पहली बार उन्हें एक स्थानीय डेम स्कूल में भेजा गया था। उनके माता-पिता अपने बेटों को ईटन या हैरो भेजना चाहते थे, लेकिन वे फीस नहीं दे सकते थे। जब वह एडमोंटन में अपने दादा-दादी (नाना-नानी) के घर पर थे, तो उन्हें जॉन क्लार्क के स्कूल एनफील्ड में भेजा गया था। जब वे क्लार्क के स्कूल में थे तो उन्होंने क्लासिक्स और इतिहास में रुचि विकसित की, यह रुचि जीवन भर उनके साथ रही।

When he was at Clarke’s school, he met Charles Cowden Clarke, the headmaster’s son. Charles was his mentor (गुरू, परामर्शदाता) and friend. He introduced John Keats to Tasso, Spenser, Chapman’s translations and Renaissance (पुनर्जागरण) Literature.

जब वे क्लार्क के स्कूल में थे, तब उनकी मुलाकात प्रधानाध्यापक के बेटे चार्ल्स काउडेन क्लार्क से हुई। चार्ल्स उनके गुरु (गुरु, सलाह) और मित्र थे। उन्होंने जॉन कीट्स को टैसो, स्पेंसर, चैपमैन के अनुवाद और पुनर्जागरण (पुनर्जागरण) साहित्य से परिचित कराया।

John Keats began to focus on reading and study. He won his first prize in 1809. John Keats’ parents died when he was only under 14. His Maternal grandmother brought him up under the guardians (अभिभावक) of Richard Abbey and John Rowland Sandell.


जॉन कीट्स ने पढ़ने और अध्ययन पर ध्यान देना शुरू किया। उन्होंने १८०९ में अपना पहला पुरस्कार जीता। जॉन कीट्स के माता-पिता की मृत्यु तब हुई जब वह केवल १४ वर्ष से कम उम्र के थे। उनकी नानी ने उन्हें रिचर्ड एबे और जॉन रॉलैंड सैंडेल के अभिभावकों (अभिभावक) के अधीन पाला।

He studied medicine in a hospital in London and apprenticed (प्रशिक्षु, काम सीखा) with an apothecary (रसायनज्ञ, दवा बेचने वाला) surgeon, Thomas Hammond. Thomas Hammond was his neighbor and the doctor of the Jennings family. Although He became a licensed apothecary in 1816, he never practiced medicine.

उन्होंने लंदन के एक अस्पताल में चिकित्सा का अध्ययन किया और एक औषधालय (रसायनज्ञ, दवा बनाने वाला) सर्जन, थॉमस हैमंड के साथ प्रशिक्षु (प्रशिक्षु, काम अन्य) किया। थॉमस हैमंड उनके पड़ोसी और जेनिंग्स परिवार के डॉक्टर थे। यद्यपि वह १८१६ में एक लाइसेंस प्राप्त औषधालय बन गया, उसने कभी चिकित्सा का अभ्यास नहीं किया।

His friend and mentor Cowen Clarke described this period as – ‘the most placid time in Keats’ life’.

उनके मित्र और संरक्षक कोवेन क्लार्क ने इस अवधि को 'कीट्स' के जीवन का सबसे शांत समय' के रूप में वर्णित किया।

After completing his apprenticeship with Hammond, he began studying at Guy’s Hospital. Now it comes under King’s College London. He was a dresser (मरहम-पट्टीकार) at the hospital, assisting surgeons during operations. The Medicine field economically helped him, so Keats had a desire to become a doctor.


हैमंड के साथ अपनी शिक्षुता पूरी करने के बाद, उन्होंने गाय के अस्पताल में पढ़ना शुरू किया। अब यह किंग्स कॉलेज लंदन के अंतर्गत आता है। वह अस्पताल में एक ड्रेसर (मरहम-भरी) था, ऑपरेशन के दौरान सर्जनों की सहायता करता था। चिकित्सा क्षेत्र ने आर्थिक रूप से उनकी मदद की, इसलिए कीट्स की इच्छा डॉक्टर बनने की थी।

Later, he felt that he was ambivalent (उभयभावी, दो गुणों को धारण करने वाला) about his medical career with stark (निरा, फीका) choice. Although he continually worked at Guy’s hospital but was gave more and more time to study literature and verse.


बाद में, उन्होंने महसूस किया कि वह स्टार्क (निरा, फ़ीका) पसंद के साथ अपने चिकित्सा करियर के बारे में उभयभावी (दुभायभावी, दो गुण दोष वाला) थे। हालाँकि उन्होंने गाइ के अस्पताल में लगातार काम किया लेकिन उन्हें साहित्य और पद्य का अध्ययन करने के लिए अधिक से अधिक समय दिया गया।

Career and Occupation-

Keats’ sense of the power and romance of literature began as Clarke encouraged (प्रोत्साहित किये) him to turn his energy and curiosity (उत्सुकता) to their library. John Keats wrote his first poem ‘An Imitation of Spenser’ in 1814 when he was only of 19.  He published his sonnet ‘On Solitude’ in May 1816 in his magazine, The Examiner. His friend and mentor, Cowden Clarke described it as ‘Red-letter day’, for his friend John Keats. Leigh Hunt helped him to publish ‘On Solitude’. ‘On Solitude’ was published in a magazine called the Examiner.

कीट्स की साहित्य की शक्ति और रोमांस की भावना तब शुरू हुई जब क्लार्क ने उन्हें अपनी ऊर्जा और जिज्ञासा (उत्सुकता) को अपने पुस्तकालय में बदलने के लिए प्रोत्साहित किया। जॉन कीट्स ने अपनी पहली कविता 'एन इमिटेशन ऑफ स्पेंसर' 1814 में लिखी थी, जब वह केवल 19 वर्ष के थे। उन्होंने मई 1816 में अपनी पत्रिका द एक्जामिनर में अपना सॉनेट 'ऑन सॉलिट्यूड' प्रकाशित किया। उनके मित्र और संरक्षक, काउडेन क्लार्क ने अपने मित्र जॉन कीट्स के लिए इसे 'रेड-लेटर डे' के रूप में वर्णित किया। लेह हंट ने उन्हें 'ऑन सॉलिट्यूड' प्रकाशित करने में मदद की। 'ऑन सॉलिट्यूड' एक्जामिनर नामक पत्रिका में प्रकाशित हुआ था।

Further, his financial condition was not good, so he was suffering from depression (अवसाद, उदासी). According to his brother George- John was feared that he should never be a poet, and if he was failed he would destroy himself.


इसके अलावा, उसकी आर्थिक स्थिति अच्छी नहीं थी, इसलिए वह अवसाद (अवसादी, उप) से पीड़ित था। उनके भाई जॉर्ज के अनुसार- जॉन को डर था कि वह कभी कवि नहीं बनेंगे, और अगर वह असफल रहे तो वे खुद को नष्ट कर देंगे।

Cowden Clarke introduced Keats to Leigh Hunt, a close friend of Byron and Shelly. His poems ‘I Stood Tiptoe’ and ‘Sleep and Poetry’ were influenced by Leigh Hunt.

काउडेन क्लार्क ने कीट्स को लेह हंट से मिलवाया, जो बायरन और शेली के करीबी दोस्त थे। उनकी कविताएँ 'आई स्टूड टिपटो' और 'स्लीप एंड पोएट्री' लेह हंट से प्रभावित थीं।

John Keats met William Hazlitt, a powerful literary figure of the day. Keats was regularly meeting William Hazlitt. It was a turning point for Keats. Leigh Hunt termed ‘A new should of poetry’ to Keats to make him a public figure.

जॉन कीट्स उस समय के एक शक्तिशाली साहित्यकार विलियम हेज़लिट से मिले। कीट्स नियमित रूप से विलियम हेजलिट से मिलते थे। कीट्स के लिए यह एक महत्वपूर्ण मोड़ था। लेह हंट ने कीट्स को एक सार्वजनिक व्यक्ति बनाने के लिए 'कविता का एक नया चाहिए' करार दिया।

John Keats published his first volume of poetry in 1817. In 1818, his brother Tom Keats died, after that, he moved to Hampstead Heath. He lived in the house of Charles Brown. There lived a lady named Mrs. Brawne. Her 16 years old daughter Fanny and John Keats fell in love with each other.

जॉन कीट्स ने 1817 में अपनी पहली कविता प्रकाशित की। 1818 में, उनके भाई टॉम कीट्स की मृत्यु हो गई, उसके बाद वे हैम्पस्टेड हीथ चले गए। वह चार्ल्स ब्राउन के घर में रहता था। श्रीमती ब्राउन नाम की एक महिला रहती थी। उनकी 16 साल की बेटी फैनी और जॉन कीट्स को एक-दूसरे से प्यार हो गया।

His poem ‘Endymion’ published in 1818. This year, 1818 was the most productive year for John Keats. It is called this annus mirabilis (a remarkable (अद्भुत) or auspicious (शुभ, मंगल) year) as he wrote most of his important poems and published in 1818 such as-

उनकी कविता 'एंडिमियन' 1818 में प्रकाशित हुई। यह वर्ष, 1818 जॉन कीट्स के लिए सबसे अधिक उत्पादक वर्ष था। इसे इस वार्षिक मिराबिलिस (एक उल्लेखनीय (अद्भुत) या शुभ (शुभ, मंगल) वर्ष) कहा जाता है क्योंकि उन्होंने अपनी अधिकांश महत्वपूर्ण कविताएँ लिखीं और 1818 में प्रकाशित हुईं जैसे-

The Eve of St Agnes,

La Belle Dame Sans Merci

To Melancholy

To a Nightingale

To Psyche

To a Grecian Urn

Endymion was his first long poem. The poem starts with famous lines-

‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’.

'सौन्दर्य की अनुभूति सौन्दर्यवान वस्तु से अधिक समय तक बनी रहती है'।

This poem is based on the Greek myth (मिथक, कल्पित कथा) of Endymion. Endymion was a shepherd boy loved by the Moon Goddess Selene. ‘Endymion is written in heroic couplets. John Keats called this poem ‘a test, a trial’ of his ‘powers of imagination and his ‘invention’.

यह कविता एंडिमियन के ग्रीक मिथक (मिथक, कल्पित कथा) पर आधारित है। एंडिमियन एक चरवाहा लड़का था जो चंद्रमा देवी सेलेन से प्यार करता था। एंडिमियन वीर दोहे में लिखा है। जॉन कीट्स ने इस कविता को अपनी 'कल्पना की शक्तियों और उनके 'आविष्कार' की 'एक परीक्षा, एक परीक्षा' कहा है।

‘Endymion’ was dedicated to Thomas Chatterton.

In 1820, John Keats began to feel ill of consumption (क्षय, यक्ष्मा). Due to his consumption, he was unable to complete his future goals. He went Italy to for his treatment. He returned from there and went to Rome. His Tuberculosis was in its last stage, so he died on February 23, 1821, when he was only of 25. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. John Keats requested before his death to write ‘Here lies one whose name was written in water, on his tombstone.

1820 में, जॉन कीट्स उपभोग (क्षय, यक्ष्मा) से बीमार महसूस करने लगे। अपने उपभोग के कारण, वह अपने भविष्य के लक्ष्यों को पूरा करने में असमर्थ था। वह इलाज के लिए इटली गए थे। वह वहाँ से लौटा और रोम चला गया। उनका तपेदिक अपने अंतिम चरण में था, इसलिए 23 फरवरी, 1821 को उनकी मृत्यु हो गई, जब वे केवल 25 वर्ष के थे। उन्हें रोम में प्रोटेस्टेंट कब्रिस्तान में दफनाया गया था। जॉन कीट्स ने अपनी मृत्यु से पहले यह लिखने का अनुरोध किया था 'यहाँ एक है जिसका नाम पानी में लिखा गया था, उसकी समाधि पर'

Period-

 He belongs to The Romantic Age.

Famous Works-

Poems (1817)

Endymion, A Poetic Romance (1818)

Hyperion (W- 1818-1819)

Ode on a Grecian Urn (1820)

La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1819)

To Autumn (1820)

Ode on Melancholy (W- 1819)

Ode to Psyche (1819)

Lamia, Isabella (1820)

Ode to a Nightingale (1819)

On Indolence (W- 1819,   P- 1848)

Works-

Although Keats died at the age of 25, he had perhaps the most remarkable career of any English poet. He published 54 sonnets. He was a master of many poetic forms- sonnet, Spenserian romance, Miltonic epic.

हालांकि कीट्स का 25 वर्ष की आयु में निधन हो गया, लेकिन उनका शायद किसी भी अंग्रेजी कवि का सबसे उल्लेखनीय करियर था। उन्होंने 54 सॉनेट प्रकाशित किए। वह कई काव्य रूपों के स्वामी थे- सॉनेट, स्पेंसरियन रोमांस, मिल्टोनिक महाकाव्य।

Death-

In 1820, John Keats began to feel ill of consumption. Due to his consumption, he was unable to complete his future goals. He went Italy to for his treatment. He returned from there and went to Rome. His Tuberculosis was in its last stage, so he died on February 23, 1821, when he was only of 26. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome.

1820 में, जॉन कीट्स क्षय के कारण बीमार महसूस करने लगे। अपने उपभोग के कारण, वह अपने भविष्य के लक्ष्यों को पूरा करने में असमर्थ था। वह इलाज के लिए इटली गए थे। वह वहाँ से लौटा और रोम चला गया। उनका तपेदिक अपने अंतिम चरण में था, इसलिए 23 फरवरी, 1821 को उनकी मृत्यु हो गई, जब वे केवल 26 वर्ष के थे। उन्हें रोम में प्रोटेस्टेंट कब्रिस्तान में दफनाया गया था।
John Keats’ Biography (1795-1821)

John Keats’ Biography (1795-1821)

John Keats का जीवन-परिचय हिन्दी में पढ़ें

Birth-

John Keats was born on October 31, 1795, in Moorgate, London. His parents marked his birthday on 29 October and in baptism (ईसाई दीक्षा, नामकरण संस्कार) record his birthday is marked on 31 October. Keats was said to have born in his maternal grandfather’s (नाना) stable (घुडसाल, अस्तबल). He was a great English Romantic lyric poet, devoted his life to the perfection of poetry with vivid imagery and great sensuous (भावमय, कामुक) appeal.

Father-

His father’s name was Thomas Keats. He had 4 children. John Keats was the eldest out of them. John Keats younger siblings (सगे भाई-बहन) were-

  1. George Keats
  2. Thomas Keats
  3. Frances Mary Keats

His father worked in the stable of his father-in-law. His father died from skull (खोपड़ी) fracture (अंग-भंग) after falling from his horse when he was only of 8. Unfortunately, his father died intestate (बिना वसीयतनामा लिखे).

Mother-

His mother’s name was Frances Jennings. John Keats’ mother died when he was only of 14, six years later of his father’s death. His mother died of Tuberculosis (यक्ष्मा, क्षय रोग) in March 1810.

Spouse-

John Keats fell in deeply in love with a French girl, Fanny Browne, but met with sorrow and dejection (निराशा, उदासी). He became engaged to Fanny Browne, but due to money problem and symptoms (लक्षण) of tuberculosis, he never got married. It aggravated (उत्तेजित किया) his tuberculosis (यक्ष्मा, क्षय रोग) and he died.

Fanny left him all too suddenly on the strange plea (बहाना, दलील) that Keats was not a few inches taller than her.

Education-

The first time he was sent to a local dame school. His parents wished to send their sons to Eton or Harrow, but they could not afford (समर्थ होना) the fees. When he was at his grandparents’ (नाना-नानी) home in Edmonton, he was sent to John Clarke’s school in Enfield.  When he was at Clarke’s school he developed an interest in classics and history, the interest was with him throughout his life.

When he was at Clarke’s school, he met Charles Cowden Clarke, the headmaster’s son. Charles was his mentor (गुरू, परामर्शदाता) and friend. He introduced John Keats to Tasso, Spenser, Chapman’s translations and Renaissance (पुनर्जागरण) Literature.

John Keats began to focus on reading and study. He won his first prize in 1809. John Keats’ parents died when he was only under 14. His Maternal grandmother brought him up under the guardians (अभिभावक) of Richard Abbey and John Rowland Sandell.

He studied medicine in a hospital in London and apprenticed (प्रशिक्षु, काम सीखा) with an apothecary (रसायनज्ञ, दवा बेचने वाला) surgeon, Thomas Hammond. Thomas Hammond was his neighbor and the doctor of the Jennings family. Although He became a licensed apothecary in 1816, he never practiced medicine.

His friend and mentor Cowen Clarke described this period as – ‘the most placid time in Keats’ life’.

After completing his apprenticeship with Hammond, he began studying at Guy’s Hospital. Now it comes under King’s College London. He was a dresser (मरहम-पट्टीकार) at the hospital, assisting surgeons during operations. The Medicine field economically helped him, so Keats had a desire to become a doctor.

Later, he felt that he was ambivalent (उभयभावी, दो गुणों को धारण करने वाला) about his medical career with stark (निरा, फीका) choice. Although he continually worked at Guy’s hospital but was gave more and more time to study literature and verse.

Career and Occupation-

Keats’ sense of the power and romance of literature began as Clarke encouraged (प्रोत्साहित किये) him to turn his energy and curiosity (उत्सुकता) to their library. John Keats wrote his first poem ‘An Imitation of Spenser’ in 1814 when he was only of 19.  He published his sonnet ‘On Solitude’ in May 1816 in his magazine, The Examiner. His friend and mentor, Cowden Clarke described it as ‘Red-letter day’, for his friend John Keats. Leigh Hunt helped him to publish ‘On Solitude’. ‘On Solitude’ was published in a magazine called the Examiner.

Further, his financial condition was not good, so he was suffering from depression (अवसाद, उदासी). According to his brother George- John was feared that he should never be a poet, and if he was failed he would destroy himself.

Cowden Clarke introduced Keats to Leigh Hunt, a close friend of Byron and Shelly. His poems ‘I Stood Tiptoe’ and ‘Sleep and Poetry’ were influenced by Leigh Hunt.

John Keats met William Hazlitt, a powerful literary figure of the day. Keats was regularly meeting William Hazlitt. It was a turning point for Keats. Leigh Hunt termed ‘A new should of poetry’ to Keats to make him a public figure.

John Keats published his first volume of poetry in 1817. In 1818, his brother Tom Keats died, after that, he moved to Hampstead Heath. He lived in the house of Charles Brown. There lived a lady named Mrs. Brawne. Her 16 years old daughter Fanny and John Keats fell in love with each other.

His poem ‘Endymion’ published in 1818. This year, 1818 was the most productive year for John Keats. It is called this annus mirabilis (a remarkable (अद्भुत) or auspicious (शुभ, मंगल) year) as he wrote most of his important poems and published in 1818 such as-

The Eve of St Agnes,

La Belle Dame Sans Merci

To Melancholy

To a Nightingale

To Psyche

To a Grecian Urn

Endymion was his first long poem. The poem starts with famous lines-

‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’.

This poem is based on the Greek myth (मिथक, कल्पित कथा) of Endymion. Endymion was a shepherd boy loved by the Moon Goddess Selene. ‘Endymion is written in heroic couplets. John Keats called this poem ‘a test, a trial’ of his ‘powers of imagination and his ‘invention’.

‘Endymion’ was dedicated to Thomas Chatterton.

In 1820, John Keats began to feel ill of consumption (क्षय, यक्ष्मा). Due to his consumption, he was unable to complete his future goals. He went Italy to for his treatment. He returned from there and went to Rome. His Tuberculosis was in its last stage, so he died on February 23, 1821, when he was only of 25. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. John Keats requested before his death to write ‘Here lies one whose name was written in water, on his tombstone

Period-

 He belongs to The Romantic Age.

Famous Works-

Poems (1817)

Endymion, A Poetic Romance (1818)

Hyperion (W- 1818-1819)

Ode on a Grecian Urn (1820)

La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1819)

To Autumn (1820)

Ode on Melancholy (W- 1819)

Ode to Psyche (1819)

Lamia, Isabella (1820)

Ode to a Nightingale (1819)

On Indolence (W- 1819,   P- 1848)

Works-

Although Keats died at the age of 25, he had perhaps the most remarkable career of any English poet. He published 54 sonnets. He was a master of many poetic forms- sonnet, Spenserian romance, Miltonic epic.

Death-

In 1820, John Keats began to feel ill of consumption. Due to his consumption, he was unable to complete his future goals. He went Italy to for his treatment. He returned from there and went to Rome. His Tuberculosis was in its last stage, so he died on February 23, 1821, when he was only of 26. He was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome.

‘The Waste Land’ Summary, Section 5

The Waste Land Summary

Section 5

What the Thunder Said

This is the last section of The Waste Land. In this section despite (के बावजूद) death and destruction (विनाश), there is emergence (उभार, उदगमन) of hope and salvation (मोक्ष, मुक्ति).

In this section, the poet depicts the final scene of Jesus Christ’s life. Jesus Christ was arrested by the crowd led by his betrayer (विश्वश्घाती, धोखेबाज), Judas. He was arrested from the garden of Gethsemane. He was crucified and dead. After his death, the earth shook. In this way the true followers of religion were dead. The poet tells that in the present time we too are dying in lack of true religion.

In this section, we find the mythical journey of Percival and his followers. They were going to the Church Perilous. The church was in the drought-ridden kingdom of the Fisher-King.

The first three stanzas refer to an uninhabited (निर्जन, उजाड़) and desert setting, in which there is an absence of water. The speaker laments the absence of water, he imagines the ‘drip drop’ (मृग-मारिचिका, मृग-तृष्णा) of water on rocks, but became sad by acknowledging that, alas! there’s no water.

There is another journey in this section, the second journey was of Emmaus. After the crucifixion of Christ, some of his disciples had doubts about his re-birth.

The third journey was of the unspiritual humanity of the wasteland which is the Eastern part of Europe. In this part, the poet describes the third vision (मानसिक अवस्था) of Tiresias. The poet describes the uprooted humanity and the bad conditions of it. He presents the nightmare (बुरा-सपना) of contemporary civilization. In this section the poet tells that people have lost their faith in God, they have forsaken the Lord. They worship only false gods.

In this section, the poet presents an extract from Brihadaranyanka Upanishad. Here the poet uses the thundering voice of Lord of creation (ब्रम्हा जी) that is- ‘Da, Da, Da. The poet presents a story from the Upanishad. Once there was a terrible famine in India. There was no water in rivers, ponds, and wells. All the creatures and trees seem to await the breaking of clouds hovering on the Himalayas. All the creatures were in great turmoil (घबराहट) and panic. Finally, men, gods, and demons decided to go to the Lord of Creation and requested help. The Lord of Creation spoke only in three sounds- ‘Da, Da, Da’. This sound has different meanings by different groups. Men take it as the three-fold path of deliverance from the cares of the world. Human is a combination of all the three properties- human, angelic (दिव्य) and demonic (शैतानी).

The poet presents the explanation of the three thunder voice- ‘Da, Da, Da’, form the Upanishad.

Da- Daan (दान)

Da- Daya (दया)

Da- Dam (दम)

The first ‘Da’ command to give. To the first question “What have we given?”

He answered that we have given only a sense of self-abnegation (आत्म-त्याग) in a moment of great emotional conviction (दोषसिद्धि). It is surrender to something outside oneself. The first surrender was our parents’ sexual consent and when we are born again, it is our new surrender to accept the order of our heart. Self-abnegation is the only evidence of life or existence.

The second command is Daya, we should be Dayawan, we should be kind to others. It is possible only when we give up our pride. If we keep sympathy, we enter imaginatively into another self. We should not shut ourselves into the cell of self-proud. In this way, we can not feel others’ misery and feelings. We should be kind to others without ego. There is only one key in this world that can unlock our cells of self-proud, which is to be devoted to others and the outside world.

The third command is Dam, be powerful to control yourself. The self-control of mind and heart is most necessary. Everyone should exercise it. Although it is easy to think and very hard to apply, but gives more freedom and happiness.

The poet tells that the heart under the controlled discipline has been pictured as a boat floating without risk and fear. In the last, the poet tells that in the modern wasteland we see the disobedience of all the three commands. The result is that the world has become a wasteland.

The Fisher King appears for the last time on the shore of wasteland. He is now determined to fight against its sterility, He was not sure that he would be successful, because he was late and the situation is out of control.

In the last, the poet once again presents a reference from the Upanishad, ‘Shantih, shantih, shantih’. The poet preaches mental piece is necessary to mankind. In the last of this section, Tiresias warns the world that the calamity (विपत्ति, आपदा) can be eliminated (टालना) by following of two Aryan myths- Sympathy and Control.

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

Section 5

‘The Waste Land’ Summary, Section 3

The Waste Land Summary

Section 3

The Fire Sermon

The title of this section is taken from a sermon given by Buddha in which he persuades (समझाना) his followers to give up Earthly passions and seek spiritual regeneration (उत्थान, पुनर्जन्म).

This section starts with a description of the Thames against the winter landscape (परिदृश्य). It presents the picture of a dreary autumn scene on the Thames. In this section, Eliot presents the reality of the modern age. He tells the sterility (बाँझपन) of the modern age. Sex has taken the place of love and real emotions are replaced by physical intimacy.

In this section, T. S. Eliot presents the idealized vision from ‘Prothalamion’ by Edmund Spenser- young ladies in immaculate (बेदाग़, निर्मल) dresses and their bride-grooms and the ladies picking flowers to make garlands for a bride. But the age of romantic loveliness now has passed away. The nymphs (परियां) are departed. The lovers of Spenser’s time have gone and new chance-lovers, who haunt the banks of the river in the summer season. The modern fashionable ladies come to the bank of the river to enjoy and to have a good time in the company of young sons and heirs of the rich.

The protagonist (नायक) is fishing on the bank of the River Thames and musing (चिंतन करना) on his brother and father’s death. Some lines of this section refer to Marvell’s famous love-lyrics, ‘To His Coy Mistress’. The fishing referred to the fertility (उपजाऊपन) ritual (समारोह). The protagonist compares his conditions to Ferdinand in ‘The Tempest’, sitting on a bank, and weeping again over the king. The poet presents an example from the Mahayana and tells that Lord Buddha is mentioned as the fisherman who draws fish from the ocean. The poet intentionally (इरादतन) gives allusion here. The Lord Buddha’s Fire Sermon is combined with a reference to Augustine at the end of the section.

The main part of this section is the typist and Tiresias’ sexual relation. The passage of their relationship is of 43 lines. It is the most important portion of the poem. In this section, the speaker introduces himself as Tiresias, a figure from classical mythology (पौराणिक कथा) that is blind but can ‘see’ into the future.

Tiresias is ‘throbbing (जीते हए, धड़कते हुए) between two lives because Eliot portrays him in this poem as a hermaphrodite (उभयलिंगी), a person who is male and female at the same time. He is representative of both sexes. He was old with wrinkled (सिकुड़े हए, झुर्रीदार) female breasts. Tiresias is the poet’s anti-self who sees all impersonally. He has been regarded as an authority on the pleasure of sexual intercourse from both points of view. Tiresias watches a young female typist and a clerk Carbuncular having sex so that what Tiresias sees is the substance (सारांश) of the poem.

Tiresias was blind in his youth because he saw Pallas Athene bathing naked. He passed a double life- a man and a woman. He had seen the snake mating.

In this section, the poet describes the experience of Tiresias, which he has visualized between the typist and a clerk’s sexual intercourse. The woman is glad it’s over and paces around her room, playing a record on the gramophone. Eliot is diagnosing his London and his world with a disease of the senses, through which sex has replaced love and meaningless physical contact has replaced real emotional connection.

Section 4

Death by Water

This section is the shortest section of The Waste Land. In this section, the poet T. S. Eliot describes a vulgar (गन्दा) trader who always thought only of his profit and loss and sensual pleasures (वासना-सुख, लैंगिक-सुख). It describes Phlebas the Phoenician sailor, who has died by drowning in the water of Leman. His life teaches us that we should follow the temptations (प्रलोभन) of wealth and the pleasures of the senses, at last, the result, our life will be only whirling wheel followed by the vortex (भंवर) of death.

In this section, the poet tells that life is a series of birth, youth, old age, and death. The poet says that after death the series reverses old age, youth, childhood, birth, and then into the womb. In this way, a person forgets all the things and starts a new fresh life, with formatted memory.

The poet presents an ancient ritual of consigning (भेजना) the effigy (पुतला) of the god of fertility to the sea and welcoming is as reborn at the end of the journey.

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 4

Section 5

Direct and Indirect Speech of Optative Sentences

कामना सूचक वाक्य का Indirect Speech बनाना

Optative Sentences में मनोभावों जैसे- अभिशाप, कामना, प्रार्थना आदि के भाव प्रकट होते है l इन वाक्यों में May का प्रयोग किया जाता है l ऐसे वाक्यों को Indirect में बदलने के निम्नलिखित नियम है l-

Rule 1- अगर Reported Part में कामना या इच्छा प्रकट की गयी हो तो said के स्थान पर Wished कर देते है l

Rule 2- अगर Reported Part में ईश्वर से प्रार्थना की गयी हो तो said के स्थान पर prayed कर देते है और object को हटा कर that के बाद God लिखकर might का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 3- अगर Reported Part में शाप या अभिशाप प्रकट की गया हो तो said के स्थान पर Cursed कर देते है l

Rule 4- Inverted commas [ , ” ] को हटा कर that का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 5- वाक्य में आये हुए [ ! ] को हटा देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct- Sheela said, “May our Prime Minister live long!” [ कामना सूचक वाक्य ]
Indirect- Sheela wished that their Prime Minister might live long.

Direct-  He said to her. ” May you die!” [ श्राप या अभिशाप ]
Indirect-  He cursed her that she might die.

Direct-  Sheela said to him, “May God bless you!” [ ईश्वर से प्रार्थना ]
Indirect-  Sheela prayed that God might bless him.

Direct-  He said to her. ” May God give you success in life!” [ ईश्वर से प्रार्थना ]
Indirect-  He prayed that God might give her success in life.

Rule 6- रिपोर्टेड भाग में यदि Good morning!, Good evening!, Good noon!, ya Good day आदि शव्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय said के स्थान पर wished कर देते है l तथा [ , ” ] के स्थान पर इन्ही शव्दों को रख देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said to me, “Good morning!”
Indirect-  Sheela wished me good morning.

Direct-  He said to her. ” Good noon!”
Indirect-  He wished her good noon.

Rule 7- यदि वाक्य में Good night!, या Good bye! का प्रयोग किया गया हो Indirect बनाते समय said के स्थान पर bade कर देते है l और [ , ” ] के स्थान पर इन्ही शव्दों को ले आते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-
  Sheela said to you, “Good night!”
Indirect-  Sheela bade you good night.

Direct-  He said to her. ” Goodbye!”
Indirect–  He bade her Goodbye.

Indirect Speech of Exclamatory Sentence

विस्मय सूचक वाक्य  का Indirect Speech बनाना

Exclamatory Sentences से हर्ष, दुःख, आश्चर्य, आदि भाव प्रकट होते है l Exclamatory sentences के अंतर्गत हम निम्नप्रकार Indirect बनाते है l

Rule 1- अगर वाक्य में दुःख, प्रकट किया गया है अर्थात वाक्य में Alas!, Oh!, Ah!, आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग मिलता है तो Indirect बनाते समय Reporting Verb ‘said’ को Exclaimed with sorrow या exclaimed with grief में बदल देते है l

Rule 2- [ , ” ] के स्थान पर that का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 3- अगर Reporting part में object भी दिया हो तो exclaimed with sorrow/delight/surprise आदि के बाद to लगाकर object भी लिखते है l

Rule 4- Indirect बनाते समय भाव प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों को हटा देते है l

Rule 5- Indirect बनाते समय Note of exclamation (!) को हटा देते है l

Rule 6- Exclamatory sentence को Assertive sentence में बदल देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said to the students, “Alas! we have lost our money.”
Indirect-  Sheela exclaimed with sorrow to the students that they had lost their money.

Direct-  He said, “Ah! I have pain in my head.”
Indirect-  He exclaimed with grief that he had pain in his head.

Rule 7- अगर वाक्य में हर्ष या प्रसन्नता प्रकट की गयी हो अर्थात वाक्य में Hurrah! या Aha! आदि शब्द आये हो तो said के स्थान पर exclaimed with delight या exclaimed with joy कर देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said, ” Hurrah! My team has won the match.”
Indirect-  Sheela exclaimed with delight that her team had won the match.

Direct-  He said, ” Aha! I am successful now.”
Indirect-  He exclaimed with joy that he was successful then.

Rule 8- अगर वाक्य में हर्ष या आश्चर्य प्रकट की गया हो अर्थात वाक्य में How!, What!, Oh!, wow! या O my God! आदि शब्द आये हो तो said के स्थान पर exclaimed with surprise या exclaimed with wonder कर देते है l

Rule 9- अगर वाक्य में हर्ष या आश्चर्य प्रकट की गया हो अर्थात वाक्य में How!, What!, आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग मिलता है Indirect बनाते समय इनके स्थान पर very, much या great शव्दों का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said, ” Wow! so sweet mango this is.”
Indirect-  Sheela exclaimed with surprise that so sweet mango that was./ that was so sweet mango.

Direct-  He said, ” What a fine morning it is!.”
Indirect-  He exclaimed with wonder that it was a very fine morning.

Rule 10- अगर वाक्य में हर्ष या प्रशंसा प्रकट की गयी हो अर्थात वाक्य में Bravo!, Well done!, आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग मिलता है Indirect बनाते समय said के स्थान पर praised या applauded कर देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said to me, ” Bravo! you have defeated the enemy.”
Indirect-  Sheela praised me that I had defeated the enemy.

Direct-  He said, ” Well done! you are a good singer.”
Indirect-  He applauded that I was a good singer.



Use of Let in Direct and Indirect Narration

Let’s Learn The Use Of ‘Let’ in Indirect Narration

आओ Let वाले वाक्यों का Indirect Speech बनाएं

Rule 1- यदि Reported Speech ‘Let us या Let’s’ से प्रारंभ हो तो इससे किसी सुझाव या प्रस्ताव का बोध होता है l Indirect बनाते समय हम said को suggested या Proposed में बदल देते है तथा reporting part में आने वाले to को नहीं हटाते है l [ , ” ] के स्थान पर that का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 2- Reported Speech के ‘Let us या Let’s’ को हटा देते है और उनके स्थान पर they should या we should का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said to the students, “Let’s discuss on the matter.”
Indirect-  The teacher proposed to the students that they should discuss on the matter.

Direct-  The father said to me. ” Let us go for a walk.”
Indirect-  The father suggested to me that we should go for a walk.

Rule 3- यदि Reported Speech के ‘Let us या Let’s’ वाले वाक्य से आदेश प्रकट हो said को ordered में, प्रार्थना प्रकट हो तो requested में बदल देते है और [ , ” ] के स्थान to का प्रयोग करते है इसके बाद let वाला वाक्य लिखते है l

Rule 4- let के स्थान पर that लगाकर भी नाउन या pronoun के बाद might be allowed to लगते है और verb का first फॉर्म प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  Sheela said to the students, “Let him discuss on the matter.”
Indirect-  sheela ordered to the students to let him discuss on the matter.

Direct-  He said to me. ” Let me go for a walk.”
Indirect-  He requested to me to let him go for a walk.

Direct and Indirect Speech Imperative Sentences

Indirect Speech of Imperative Sentences

Impretive Sentences में आज्ञा (Order), प्रार्थन (Request) या , सलाह (Advice), अनुरोध (Request)आदि भाव प्रकट होते है l

Rule 1- अगर Reported Speech के भाग में आज्ञा दी गयी हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reporting verb ‘said’ को ordered या commanded में बदल देते है l

Rule 2- Indirect बनाते समय Reporting verb ‘said’ के बाद प्रयुक्त To को हटा देते है l

Rule 3- Indirect बनाते समय [, ” ] के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 4-Indirect बनाते समय Reported part के verb के रूप में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है

For Examples:-
Direct-  The boss said to his servant, “Bring the box.”
Indirect-  The boss ordered his servant to bring the box.

Direct-  The teacher said. “stand up on the bench.”
Indirect-  The teacher commanded to stand up on the bench.

Rule 5- अगर Reported Speech के भाग में प्रार्थना की गयी हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reporting verb ‘said’ को prayed, requested, begged या implored आदि में बदल देते है l तथा वाक्य में आये Please या Kindly शव्दों को हटा देते है l

Rule 6- Indirect बनाते समय Reported part के verb के पहले to का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  He said to Papa, “Please give me some rupees.”
Indirect-  He requested papa to give him some rupees.

Direct-  The boy said. “Kindly give me food to eat.”
Indirect-  The boy requested to give him food to eat.

Rule 7- यदि वाक्य में सलाह का बोध हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported verb को advised, suggested या urged आदि में बदल देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  He said to him, “Take some exercise daily.”
Indirect-  He advised him to take some exercise daily.

Direct-  The father said to me. ” Do your work on time.”
Indirect-  The father suggested me to do my work on time.

Rule 8- यदि Reported Speech ‘Do not’ से प्रारंभ हो तो Indirect बनाते समय या तो हम said को advised या ordered में बदल देते है तथा do को हटा कर not के पश्चात् to का प्रयोग करते है या फिर said के स्थान पर forbade का प्रयोग करके do not को हटा देते है और verb के पहले to का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-

Direct-  The teacher said to the student, “Don’t waste your time.”
Indirect-  The teacher advised the student not to waste his time.

Direct-  The father said to me. ” Do not eat too much sweets.”
Indirect-  The father forbade me to eat too much sweets.

Rule 9- यदि Reported Speech ‘Never’ से प्रारंभ हो तो Indirect बनाते समय या तो हम said को advised में बदल देते है तथा never के पश्चात् to का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said to the student, “Never waste your time.”
Indirect-  The teacher advised the student never to waste his time.

Direct-  The father said to me. ” Never eat too much sweets.”
Indirect-  The father advised me never to eat too much sweets.

Let’s Learn The Use Of ‘Let’ [ आओ Let वाले वाक्यों का अध्ययन करें ]

Rule 1- यदि Reported Speech ‘Let us या Let’s’ से प्रारंभ हो तो इससे किसी सुझाव या प्रस्ताव का बोध होता है l Indirect बनाते समय हम said को suggested या Proposed में बदल देते है तथा reporting part में आने वाले to को नहीं हटाते है l [ , ” ] के स्थान पर that का प्रयोग करते है l

Rule 2- Reported Speech के ‘Let us या Let’s’ को हटा देते है और उनके स्थान पर they should या we should का प्रयोग करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said to the students, “Let’s discuss on the matter.”
Indirect-  The teacher proposed to the students that they should discuss on the matter.

Direct-  The father said to me. ” Let us go for a walk.”
Indirect-  The father suggested to me that we should go for a walk.

Mulk Raj Anand की जीवनी हिन्दी में

मुल्क राज आनंद की जीवनी

Birth-

Mulk Raj Anand was born on December 12, in 1905 in Peshawar, India. Now Peshawar is in Pakistan. He was an Indian writer in English. He was one of the pioneers of Indo-Anglian fiction. Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan, Ahmad Ali and Raja Rao were the pioneers of Indo-Anglian fiction. He was one of the first India-based writers in English to gain an International readership. He was well-known for his novels and short stories. He was prominent Indian author of novels, short stories, and critical essays in English. He is considered a founder of the English-language Indian novel.

मुल्क राज आनंद का जन्म 12 दिसंबर 1905 को पेशावर, भारत में हुआ था। अब पेशावर पाकिस्तान में है। वह अंग्रेजी में एक भारतीय लेखक थे। वह इंडो-एंग्लियन फिक्शन के अग्रदूतों में से एक थे। मुल्क राज आनंद, आर. के. नारायण, अहमद अली और राजा राव इंडो-एंग्लियन फिक्शन के अग्रदूत थे। वह अंतर्राष्ट्रीय पाठक संख्या हासिल करने वाले अंग्रेजी के पहले भारत-आधारित लेखकों में से एक थे। वह अपने उपन्यासों और लघु कथाओं के लिए प्रसिद्ध थे। वह अंग्रेजी में उपन्यासों, लघु कथाओं और आलोचनात्मक निबंधों के प्रमुख भारतीय लेखक थे। उन्हें अंग्रेजी भाषा के भारतीय उपन्यास का संस्थापक माना जाता है।

Father-

His father’s name was Lal Chand. He was the son of a coppersmith, who later became a soldier.

इनके पिता का नाम लालचंद था। वे एक ताम्रकार के पुत्र थे, जो बाद में एक सैनिक बने।

Mother-

His mother’s name was Ishwar Kaur. She was a farmer.

इनके पिता का नाम इश्वर कौर थाl वह एक किसान थींl

Spouse-

Mulk Raj Anand married with Kathleen Van Gelder, English actress and Communist, in 1938. After 10 years, he divorced her in 1948.

His second wife was Shirin Vajifdar. She was born in Bombay, India. She Married with Mulk Raj Anand in 1950. She was his second wife. She was an Indian classical dancer, choreographer, instructor and critic. She was a Kathak dancer.

मुल्क राज आनंद ने 1938 में अंग्रेजी अभिनेत्री और कम्युनिस्ट कैथलीन वैन गेल्डर से शादी की। 10 साल बाद, उन्होंने 1948 में उन्हें तलाक दे दिया।

उनकी दूसरी पत्नी शिरीन वजीफदार थीं। उनका जन्म बॉम्बे, भारत में हुआ था। उन्होंने 1950 में मुल्क राज आनंद से शादी की। वह उनकी दूसरी पत्नी थीं। वह एक भारतीय शास्त्रीय नृत्यांगना, कोरियोग्राफर, प्रशिक्षक और आलोचक थीं। वह कथक नृत्यांगना थीं।

Education-

He attended Khalsa College, Amritsar, and entered the University of Punjab in 1921. He got his higher education from Punjab University in Lohore. He graduated with honours from there in 1924. Later he went to Britain and pursued additional study at University of Cambridge. He also studied at University College in London, receiving his Ph.D. in 1929. While at college, he became involved in the Non Co-operation Movement in 1921 and for a short while  he was imprisoned. When he was spending time in Geneva, He lectured at League of Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. He also lectured, on and off between 1932 and 1945, at Workers Educational Association in London.

उन्होंने खालसा कॉलेज, अमृतसर में भाग लिया और 1921 में पंजाब विश्वविद्यालय में प्रवेश लिया। उन्होंने अपनी उच्च शिक्षा पंजाब विश्वविद्यालय, लोहोर से प्राप्त की। उन्होंने 1924 में वहां से सम्मान के साथ स्नातक की उपाधि प्राप्त की। बाद में वे ब्रिटेन चले गए और कैम्ब्रिज विश्वविद्यालय में अतिरिक्त अध्ययन किया। उन्होंने लंदन के यूनिवर्सिटी कॉलेज में भी पढ़ाई की और पीएच.डी. 1929 में। कॉलेज में रहते हुए, वे 1921 में असहयोग आंदोलन में शामिल हो गए और कुछ समय के लिए उन्हें जेल में डाल दिया गया। जब वे जिनेवा में समय बिता रहे थे, उन्होंने लीग ऑफ नेशंस इंटरनेशनल कमेटी ऑन इंटेलेक्चुअल कोऑपरेशन में व्याख्यान दिया। उन्होंने लंदन में वर्कर्स एजुकेशनल एसोसिएशन में 1932 और 1945 के बीच व्याख्यान दिया।

Literary Life-

Mulk Raj Anand wrote from a young age. He had faced social and religious difficulties for his love. He had love for a Muslim girl, unfortunately she was already married.

His first prose essay came after the suicide of an aunt ostracized by her family for sharing a meal with a Muslim woman. Many incidents like these incidents, inspired him to write to vent his frustration through words.

He is best known for his depiction of the poorer classes of people in India and their plight. He had depicted the lives of the poorer castes in traditional Indian society.  

He had written hundreds of novels and short stories.

He is also considered the first writer to incorporate Punjabi and Hindustani idioms into English.

मुल्क राज आनंद ने छोटी उम्र से ही लिखा था। उन्हें अपने प्यार के लिए सामाजिक और धार्मिक कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ा था। उन्हें एक मुस्लिम लड़की से प्यार था, दुर्भाग्य से वह पहले से ही शादीशुदा थी।
उनका पहला गद्य निबंध एक मुस्लिम महिला के साथ भोजन साझा करने के लिए अपने परिवार द्वारा बहिष्कृत एक चाची की आत्महत्या के बाद आया था। इस तरह की कई घटनाओं ने उन्हें अपनी निराशा को शब्दों के माध्यम से निकालने के लिए लिखने के लिए प्रेरित किया।
वह भारत में लोगों के गरीब वर्गों और उनकी दुर्दशा के चित्रण के लिए सबसे ज्यादा जाने जाते हैं। उन्होंने पारंपरिक भारतीय समाज में गरीब जातियों के जीवन का चित्रण किया था।
उन्होंने सैकड़ों उपन्यास और लघु कथाएँ लिखी थीं।
उन्हें पंजाबी और हिंदुस्तानी मुहावरों को अंग्रेजी में शामिल करने वाला पहला लेखक भी माना जाता है।

Career and Occupation-

He was a torchbearer of the 20th century Progressive Writers’ Movement. He had drafted the first manifesto of the literary association. He was the founding father of Indian English novel.

He was also the Secretary of Progressive Writers Association.

वे 20वीं सदी के प्रगतिशील लेखक आंदोलन के पथ प्रदर्शक थे। उन्होंने साहित्यिक संघ का पहला घोषणापत्र तैयार किया था। वह भारतीय अंग्रेजी उपन्यास के संस्थापक पिता थे।
वे प्रगतिशील लेखक संघ के सचिव भी थे।

Period-

 He belonged to the 20th Century. The Modern Age.

वह 20वीं सदी के थे। आधुनिक युग।

Famous Works-

1- Untouchable (1935)

It was his first novel. It exposed the lives of India’s untouchable caste. It tells the story of Bakha, a toilet-cleaner. He faces Many humiliations pain of untouchability.

Mulk Raj Anand used Punjabi and Hindi idiom in English in Untouchable (1935). It brought more reputation for him as- India’s Charles Dickens.

Its introduction was written by E. M. Forster. He and E. M. Forster became friend while he was working on T. S. Eliot’s magazine Criterion

2- Coolie (1936)

This novel was published in 1936. It reinforced his name and fame and made him one of India’s leading English authors. It criticized the British rule in India and India’s caste system. It presents the plight of a 14 years old boy Munoo. He faces poverty and social exploitation.

Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh launched a commemorative edition including Coolie (1936) in 2004.

1- Untouchable (1935)

यह उनका पहला उपन्यास था। इसने भारत की अछूत जाति के जीवन को उजागर किया। यह शौचालय-क्लीनर बाखा की कहानी कहता है। उसे अस्पृश्यता के अनेक अपमानों का सामना करना पड़ता है।
मुल्क राज आनंद ने Untouchable (1935). में अंग्रेजी में पंजाबी और हिंदी मुहावरों का इस्तेमाल किया। यह उनके लिए और अधिक प्रतिष्ठा लेकर आया- भारत के चार्ल्स डिकेंस के रूप में।
इसका परिचय E. M. Forster ने लिखा था। जब वह टी.एस. एलियट की पत्रिका मानदंड पर काम कर रहे थे, तब वे और ई.एम. फोर्स्टर के दोस्त बन गएl

2- Coolie (1936)

यह उपन्यास 1936 में प्रकाशित हुआ था। इसने उनके नाम और प्रसिद्धि को मजबूत किया और उन्हें भारत के प्रमुख अंग्रेजी लेखकों में से एक बना दिया। इसने भारत में ब्रिटिश शासन और भारत की जाति व्यवस्था की आलोचना की। यह एक 14 साल के लड़के मुनू की दुर्दशा को प्रस्तुत करता है। वह गरीबी और सामाजिक शोषण का सामना करता है।
भारतीय प्रधान मंत्री मन मोहन सिंह ने 2004 में कुली (1936) सहित एक स्मारक संस्करण का शुभारंभ किया।

His first Novel-

Untouchable (1935) is his first novel. It begins with scenes of public latrines, dirty bazars, lanes, alleys and gutters.

 It got criticism form English critic. Once he travelled to Ireland. He met George Russell and W. B. Yeats. He told an incident that occurred in Woolf’s drawing-room. George Russell advised him to return to India.

According to Mulk Raj Anand- He said, “Son, go back to Gandhi for a year. He is struggling against the rejection of outcasts; at the same time he is fighting against imperialism”. George Russell wrote to Gandhi on Mulk Raj Anand’s behalf.” He also wrote to Gandhi asking if he could visit. Gandhi ji replied saying, “Come of March, 1927”.

Mulk Raj Anand went to Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad and showed a draft of the Untouchable to Gandhi Ji. Gandhi Ji told, “I have looked at your novel. You seem to use big words as- Harijans sigh, moan and groan! They do not use such heavy words. Gandhi Ji suggested him to use simpler language and transliterate what they say”.

After that Mulk Raj Anand rewrote the entire novel in the ashram and Gandhi approved its final draft. Although 19 publishers rejected the manuscript but, Lawrence and Wishart, a small publishing company, published the novel ‘Untouchable’ in 1935.

Mulk Raj Anand’s friend E. M. Forster noted The Preface of the novel and helped him in publishing the novel ‘Untouchable’. He said about the novel, “None of us is pure­­­—we shouldn’t be alive if we were. But to the straightforward, all things can become pure, and it is to the directness of his attack that Mr Anand’s success is probably due”.

Finally, his novel Untouchable brought name and fame to him. It was translated into many other languages. Bakha, the Hero belongs to downtrodden race.

Untouchable (1935) उनका पहला उपन्यास है। इसकी शुरुआत सार्वजनिक शौचालयों, गंदे बाजारों, गलियों, गलियों और गटर के दृश्यों से होती है।
 इसे अंग्रेजी आलोचक के रूप में आलोचना मिली। एक बार उन्होंने आयरलैंड की यात्रा की। उन्होंने जॉर्ज रसेल और डब्ल्यूबी येट्स से मुलाकात की। उसने वूल्फ के ड्राइंग रूम में हुई एक घटना को बताया। जॉर्ज रसेल ने उन्हें भारत लौटने की सलाह दी।
मुल्क राज आनंद के अनुसार- उन्होंने कहा, "बेटा, एक साल के लिए गांधी के पास वापस जाओ। वह बहिष्कृत लोगों की अस्वीकृति के खिलाफ संघर्ष कर रहे हैं; साथ ही वह साम्राज्यवाद के खिलाफ लड़ रहे हैं।" जॉर्ज रसेल ने मुल्क राज आनंद की ओर से गांधी को पत्र लिखा। उन्होंने गांधी को भी पत्र लिखकर पूछा कि क्या वह यात्रा कर सकते हैं। गांधी जी ने उत्तर दिया, "मार्च, 1927 को आओ"।
मुल्क राज आनंद ने अहमदाबाद के साबरमती आश्रम में जाकर गांधी जी को Untouchable का मसौदा दिखाया। गांधी जी ने कहा, "मैंने आपका उपन्यास देखा है। आप बड़े-बड़े शब्दों का प्रयोग करते प्रतीत होते हैं जैसे- Harijans sigh, moan and groan! वे इतने भारी शब्दों का प्रयोग नहीं करते। गांधी जी ने उन्हें सरल भाषा का उपयोग करने और वे जो कहते हैं उसका लिप्यंतरण करने का सुझाव दिया।
उसके बाद मुल्क राज आनंद ने पूरे उपन्यास को आश्रम में फिर से लिखा और गांधी ने इसके अंतिम मसौदे को मंजूरी दी। हालाँकि 19 प्रकाशकों ने पांडुलिपि को अस्वीकार कर दिया, लेकिन एक छोटी प्रकाशन कंपनी लॉरेंस और विशार्ट ने 1935 में ' Untouchable ' उपन्यास प्रकाशित किया।
मुल्क राज आनंद के मित्र ई.एम. फोर्स्टर ने उपन्यास की प्रस्तावना को नोट किया और उपन्यास ' Untouchable ' को प्रकाशित करने में उनकी मदद की। उन्होंने उपन्यास के बारे में कहा, "हम में से कोई भी शुद्ध नहीं है - अगर हम होते तो हमें जीवित नहीं रहना चाहिए। लेकिन सीधे लोगों के लिए, सभी चीजें शुद्ध हो सकती हैं, और उनके हमले की प्रत्यक्षता के कारण ही Mr. Anand की सफलता संभव है।
अंत में, उनके उपन्यास Untouchable ने उन्हें नाम और प्रसिद्धि दिलाई। इसका कई अन्य भाषाओं में अनुवाद किया गया था। बाखा, नायक दलित जाति का है।

Awards-

He won International Peace Prize form World Peace Council in 1953.

He won Padma Bhushan Award in 1967.

He won the Sahitya Academy Award, in 1971.

उन्होंने 1953 में विश्व शांति परिषद के रूप में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय शांति पुरस्कार जीता।
1967 में उन्हें पद्म भूषण पुरस्कार मिला।
उन्होंने १९७१ में साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार जीता।

Works-

  • Untouchable (1935)
  • Coolie (1936)
  • Two Leaves and a Bud (1937)
  • The village (1939)
  • Across the Black Waters (1939)
  • The Sword and the Sickle (1942)
  • The Big Heart (1945)
  • The Lost child (1934)
  • Seven Summers : A Memoir (1951)
  • The Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953)
  • The Old Woman and the Cow (1960)
  • The Road (1961)
  • The Death of a Hero (1964)

Critical Comments-

He was mocked by an English critic Edward Sackville-West for trying to write a novel about a lower-caste protagonist.

According to Mulk Raj Anand the critic said, “Oh! There can be no novel about the poor! One can only laugh at the Cockneys like Dickens’. This unnerved me and made me feel hopeless about my confessional.”

Later, that novel turned out to be his seminal debut book, Untouchable (1935).

एक निचली जाति के नायक के बारे में एक उपन्यास लिखने की कोशिश करने के लिए एक अंग्रेजी आलोचक एडवर्ड सैकविले-वेस्ट द्वारा उनका मजाक उड़ाया गया था।
मुल्क राज आनंद के अनुसार आलोचक ने कहा, "ओह! गरीबों के बारे में कोई उपन्यास नहीं हो सकता! डिकेंस की तरह कॉकनी पर ही कोई हंस सकता है। इसने मुझे बेचैन कर दिया और मुझे अपने इकबालिया बयान के बारे में निराशाजनक महसूस कराया। 
बाद में, वह उपन्यास उनकी मौलिक पहली पुस्तक, अनटचेबल (1935) निकला।

Death-                                                                                    

He died pneumonia in Pune on September 28, 2004. He was 98 years old when he died.


28 सितंबर, 2004 को पुणे में निमोनिया से उनकी मृत्यु हो गई। जब उनकी मृत्यु हुई तब वह 98 वर्ष के थे।

Mulk Raj Anand (1905-2004)

Biography of Mulk Raj Anand

मुल्क राज आनंद का जीवन-परिचय हिन्दी में पढ़ें

Birth-

Mulk Raj Anand was born on December 12, 1905, in Peshawar, India. Now Peshawar is in Pakistan. He was an Indian writer in English. He was one of the pioneers (अगुआ, मार्ग-निर्माता) of Indo-Anglian fiction (उपन्यास). Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan, Ahmad Ali, and Raja Rao were the pioneers of Indo-Anglian fiction. He was one of the first India-based writers in English to gain an international readership (शिक्षकत्व, अध्यापकी). He was well-known for his novels and short stories. He was prominent (प्रसिद्ध, विशिष्ठ) Indian author of novels, short stories, and critical (समालोचनात्मक) essays in English. He is considered a founder (संस्थापक) of the English-language Indian novel.

Father-

His father’s name was Lal Chand. He was the son of a coppersmith (ठठेरा), who later became a soldier.

Mother-

His mother’s name was Ishwar Kaur. She was a farmer.

Spouse (पत्नी, श्रीमती)-

Mulk Raj Anand married Kathleen Van Gelder, English actress and Communist (साम्यवादी), in 1938. After 10 years, he divorced her in 1948.

His second wife was Shirin Vajifdar. She was born in Bombay, India. She Married Mulk Raj Anand in 1950. She was his second wife. She was an Indian classical(शास्त्रीय) dancer, choreographer (नृत्यरचना-कार), instructor(प्रशिक्षक) and critic (आलोचक). She was a Kathak dancer (नर्तकी, नृत्यांगना).

Education-

He attended Khalsa College, Amritsar, and entered the University of Punjab in 1921. He got his higher education from Punjab University in Lahore. He graduated with honors from there in 1924. Later he went to Britain and pursued additional (अतिरिक्त, अपर) study at the University of Cambridge. He also studied at University College in London, receiving his Ph.D. in 1929. While at college, he became involved in the Non-Co-operation Movement in 1921, and for a short while he was imprisoned (कारावासित, बन्दी). When he was spending time in Geneva, He lectured at the League of Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. He also lectured, on and off (कभी-कभार) between 1932 and 1945, at Workers Educational Association in London.

Literary Life-

Mulk Raj Anand wrote from a young age. He had faced social and religious difficulties for his love. He had a love for a Muslim girl, unfortunately, she was already married.

His first prose essay came after the suicide of an aunt ostracized (समाज से बहिष्कृत) by her family for sharing a meal with a Muslim woman. Many incidents like these incidents, inspired him to write to vent his frustration (निराशा) through words.

He is best known for his depiction (चित्रण, वर्णन) of the poorer classes of people in India and their plight (दुर्दशा). He had depicted the lives of the poorer castes (जाति) in traditional (परंपरागत) Indian society.  

He had written hundreds of novels and short stories.

He is also considered the first writer to incorporate (सम्मिलित करने) Punjabi and Hindustani idioms (मुहावरों) into English.

Career and Occupation-

He was a torchbearer (पथप्रदर्शक) of the 20th century Progressive (प्रगतिशील) Writers’ Movement. He had drafted (मसौदा तैयार किया) the first manifesto (घोषणापत्र) of the literary association (संघ). He was the founding father of Indian English novel.

He was also the Secretary (सचिव) of Progressive Writers Association.

Period-

 He belonged to the 20th Century, The Modern Age.

Famous Works-

1- Untouchable (1935)

It was his first novel. It exposed the lives of India’s untouchable (अछूत) caste. It tells the story of Bakha, a toilet cleaner. He faces Many humiliations (निरादर,अपमान, तिरस्कार)) ( pain of untouchability (छुआछूत).

Mulk Raj Anand used Punjabi and Hindi idiom in English in Untouchable (1935). It brought more reputation (प्रतिष्ठा, ख्याति) for him as- India’s, Charles Dickens.

Its introduction was written by E. M. Forster. He and E. M. Forster became a friend while he was working on T. S. Eliot’s magazine Criterion

2- Coolie (1936)

This novel was published in 1936. It reinforced (प्रबलित किया) his name and fame and made him one of India’s leading English authors. It criticized the British rule in India and India’s caste system. It presents the plight of a 14 years old boy Munoo. He faces poverty and social exploitation (शोषण).

Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh launched (शुभारम्भ) a commemorative (स्मरणीय), edition including Coolie (1936) in 2004.

His first Novel-

Untouchable (1935) is his first novel. It begins with scenes of public latrines, dirty bazaars, lanes, alleys (गलियां) and gutters (नालियां).

 It got criticism from English critic. Once he travelled to Ireland. He met George Russell and W. B. Yeats. He told an incident that occurred in Woolf’s drawing-room. George Russell advised him to return to India.

According to Mulk Raj Anand- He said, “Son, go back to Gandhi for a year. He is struggling against the rejection of outcasts (बहिष्कृत); at the same time he is fighting against imperialism (साम्राज्यवाद)”. George Russell wrote to Gandhi on Mulk Raj Anand’s behalf (की ओर से)”.  He also wrote to Gandhi asking if he could visit. Gandhi Ji replied saying, “Come of March 1927”.

Mulk Raj Anand went to Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad and showed a draft (मसौदा) of the Untouchable to Gandhi Ji. Gandhi Ji told, “I have looked at your novel. You seem to use big words as- Harijans’ sigh (आह), moan (कराह, विलाप) and groan (कराहना, तड़प)! They do not use such heavy words. Gandhi Ji suggested him to use simpler language and transliterate (लिप्यन्तरण, एक भाषा के लेख का दूसरी भाषा में लिखना) what they say”.

After that Mulk Raj Anand rewrote the entire novel in the ashram and Gandhi approved (अनुमोदित किये, स्वीकृत किये) its final draft. Although 19 publishers rejected the manuscript (हस्तलिपि). Lawrence and Wishart, a small publishing company, published the novel ‘Untouchable’ in 1935.

Mulk Raj Anand’s friend E. M. Forster noted The Preface of the novel and helped him in publishing the novel ‘Untouchable’. He said about the novel, “None of us is pure­­­—we shouldn’t be alive if we were. But to the straightforward (स्पष्टवादी, सरल, सीधा-सादा), all things can become pure, and it is to the directness (सादगी, निष्कपटता) of his attack that Mr. Anand’s success is probably due (यथोचित, उचित)”.

Finally, his novel Untouchable brought name and fame to him. It was translated into many other languages. Bakha, the Hero belongs to the downtrodden (कुचला हुआ, रौंदा हुआ) race.

Awards-

He won International Peace Prize form World Peace Council in 1953.

He won Padma Bhushan Award in 1967.

He won the Sahitya Academy Award, in 1971.

Works-

  • Untouchable (1935)
  • Coolie (1936)
  • Two Leaves and a Bud (1937)
  • The village (1939)
  • Across the Black Waters (1939)
  • The Sword and the Sickle (1942)
  • The Big Heart (1945)
  • The Lost Child (1934)
  • Seven Summers: A Memoir (1951)
  • The Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953)
  • The Old Woman and the Cow (1960)
  • The Road (1961)
  • The Death of a Hero (1964)

Critical Comments-

He was mocked (मजाक उड़ाया, हंसी उड़ाया) by an English critic Edward Sackville-West for trying to write a novel about a lower-caste protagonist (नायक).

According to Mulk Raj Anand, the critic said, “Oh! There can be no novel about the poor! One can only laugh at the Cockneys (मुर्ख पुरवासी) like Dickens’. This unnerved (हतोत्साहित किया) me and made me feel hopeless about my confessional (पाप स्वीकार पीठिका).”

Later, that novel turned out to be his seminal (प्राथमिक, लाभदायक) debut (प्रथम प्रवेश) book, Untouchable (1935).

Death-                                                                                    

He died pneumonia (निमोनिया) in Pune on September 28, 2004. He was 98 years old when he died.

Sentence Containing the Adverb ‘too’

1-Sentence Containing the Adverb ‘too’(क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ वाले वाक्य)-

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों का रूपांतरण वाक्य को दो भागों में बाँट कर किया जाता है l

  • Removing The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को हटाकर)
  • Adding The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को जोड़ कर )

(A)- Removing The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को हटाकर)                    

Rule 1- ऐसे वाक्य जिनकी संरचना इस प्रकार होती है – (too+adj+to+v). For Example-

He was too old to fly kite.

तो इसप्रकार के वाक्य को निम्नलिखित तरीके से transform किया जाता है l

  1. Replace ‘too’ with ‘so’
  2. Add ‘that’ after the adjective
  3. Use noun/pronoun according to the subject after ‘that’
  4. Replace ‘to’ with can not/could not (use ‘cannot’ if the sentence is in present tense and use ‘could not’ if the sentence is in the past tense)

For Examples-

Sen- He was too old to fly kite.

Trf- He was so old that he could not fly kite.

Sen- The boy is too small to reach to the clock.

Trf- The boy is so small that  he can not reach to the clock.

Rule 2- transform करते समय can के स्थान पर हम will, shall, do, does, did तथा could से स्थान पर would का प्रयोग भी noun/pronoun के अनुसार कर सकते हैं l  

For Examples-

Sen- He was too old to fly kite.

Trf- He was so old that he would not fly kite. or He was so old that he did not fly kite.

Sen- The boy is too small to reach to the clock.

Trf- The boy is so small that he does not reach to the clock. or The boy is so small that he will not reach to the clock.

Rule 2- कभी-कभी वाक्य में Adjective के बाद ‘for me, for him, for them, for her, for noun, for us, for you  का प्रयोग मिलता है, transform करते समय that के बाद ‘for me को I, for him को He, for them को They, for her को She, for noun को Noun, for us को We, for you को You’ में बदल देते हैं l 

For Examples-

Sen- It is too hard for me to do.

Trf- It is so hard that I can not do.

Sen-The question is too difficult for him to solve.

Trf- The question is so difficult that he can not solve.

1-Sentence Containing the Adverb ‘too’(क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ वाले वाक्य)-

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों का रूपांतरण वाक्य को दो भागों में बाँट कर किया जाता है l

  • Removing The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को हटाकर)
  • Adding The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को जोड़ कर )

(A)- Removing The Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ को हटाकर)                    

Rule 1- ऐसे वाक्य जिनकी संरचना इस प्रकार होती है – (too+adj+to+v). For Example-

He was too old to fly kite.

तो इसप्रकार के वाक्य को निम्नलिखित तरीके से transform किया जाता है l

  1. Replace ‘too’ with ‘so’
  2. Add ‘that’ after the adjective
  3. Use noun/pronoun according to the subject after ‘that’
  4. Replace ‘to’ with can not/could not (use ‘cannot’ if the sentence is in present tense and use ‘could not’ if the sentence is in the past tense)

For Examples-

Sen- He was too old to fly kite.

Trf- He was so old that he could not fly kite.

Sen- The boy is too small to reach to the clock.

Trf- The boy is so small that  he can not reach to the clock.

Rule 2- transform करते समय can के स्थान पर हम will, shall, do, does, did तथा could से स्थान पर would का प्रयोग भी noun/pronoun के अनुसार कर सकते हैं l  

For Examples-

Sen- He was too old to fly kite.

Trf- He was so old that he would not fly kite. or He was so old that he did not fly kite.

Sen- The boy is too small to reach to the clock.

Trf- The boy is so small that he does not reach to the clock. or The boy is so small that he will not reach to the clock.

Rule 2- कभी-कभी वाक्य में Adjective के बाद ‘for me, for him, for them, for her, for noun, for us, for you  का प्रयोग मिलता है, transform करते समय that के बाद ‘for me को I, for him को He, for them को They, for her को She, for noun को Noun, for us को We, for you को You’ में बदल देते हैं l 

For Examples-

Sen- It is too hard for me to do.

Trf- It is so hard that I can not do.

Sen-The question is too difficult for him to solve.

Trf- The question is so difficult that he can not solve.

                        
Transformation of Sentences वाक्यों का रूपांतरण

Transformation of Sentences (वाक्यों का रूपांतरण)

Definition:-

1-“To change the structure of the sentence, without changing in its sense is called transformation.”— Dinesh Kumar

(अर्थ अथवा भाव में परिवर्तन किये बिना ही वाक्य के रूप/संरचना को बदल देना ही transformation या रूपांतरण कहलाता है l—दिनेश कुमार)

2-“To transform a sentence is to change it from one grammatical form to another without altering its sense.”—-Nesfield

(“व्याकरण की नियमों के अनुसार वाक्य के रूप को बिना अर्थ या भाव में परिवर्तन किये दुसरे रूप में परिवर्तित कर देना ही रूपांतरण कहलाता है l”—नेस्फील्ड)

For Example-

Sentence-            Sarla is a good girl. (सरला एक अच्छी लड़की है )

Transformation- Sarla is not a bad girl. (सरला एक गन्दी लड़की नही है l)

उपरोक्त वाक्य में भाव ‘सरला के अच्छा होने क है’ जिसको रूपांतरित करने पर भी नही बदलना हैl सिर्फ हमें वाक्य में आये हुए शव्दों को बदलना है , जिससे परवर्तित वाक्य से भी यह भाव निकले कि ‘सरला एक अच्छी लड़की है’l इसलिए not a bad से प्रकट होता है l

Different Methods of Transformation (रूपांतरण की विभिन्न विधियाँ)-

रूपांतरण की प्रमुख 11 विधियाँ हैं –

1- Sentence containing the Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ वाले वाक्य)

2- Interchange of Assertive and Interrogative Sentences (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

3- Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences (स्वीकारात्मक तथा नकारात्मक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

4- Interchange of Degrees of Comparison (तुलना की विभिन्न श्रेणियों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

5- Interchange of Exclamatory and Assertive Sentences (विस्मयसूचक तथा कथ्नात्मक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

6- Different Ways of Expressing condition and Contrast (शर्त और बिरोध प्रकट करने के विभिन्न तरीके)

7- Interchange of Active and Passive voice (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

8- Interchange of One Part of Speech with Another (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

9- Interchange of Simple Sentences and Compound Sentences (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

10- Interchange of Simple Sentences and Complex Sentences (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

11- Interchange of Compound Sentences and Complex Sentences (कथ्नात्मक तथा प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों का आपस में रूपांतरण)

1- Sentence containing the Adverb ‘too’ (क्रिया-विशेषण ‘too’ वाले वाक्य)

                       
Syntax वाक्य-रचना

Syntax (वाक्य-रचना)

Syntax:-  The correct arrangement of words in a sentence

is called Syntax.

वाक्य में शब्दों को सही क्रम व सही रूप में रखने को ही Syntax कहते हैंl

Example-

Incorrect- He is going to the Mumbai.

Correct-     He is going to Mumbai.

Rules of Articles

1- A       2- An           3- The

Articles

Indefinite Article

  1. A      
  2. 2- An          

Definite Article

    1- The

Indefinite Article:-

A और An का प्रयोग singular countable nouns के साथ होता है,

जबकि uncountable nouns के साथ नहीं होताl

Example-

Incorrect- This is chair made of a plastic.

Correct-     This is a chair made of plastic.

Incorrect- There lived a frog in a water.

Correct-     There lived a frog in water.

Definite Article:-

Definite Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग निश्चित nouns, अर्थात जिस

noun को हम पहले से ही जानते है, के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है,

Example-

Incorrect- He wants to meet class-teacher.

Correct-     He want to meet the class-teacher.

Incorrect- My father wants to meet class-teacher.

Correct-     My father wants to meet the class-teacher.

Rules to use of ‘A’:-

Rule 1- ‘A’ का प्रयोग उस singular countable nouns के साथ एक का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए किया जाता है जिसका उच्चारण consonant की आवाज से होता हैl

Examples- A dog,       A book,       A mobile,         A pen,       A university, Autensil,   A one-eyed man,  A one-rupee note,  

A union,

Rule 2- Singular number में common noun से पहले any (किसी या कोई) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी ‘a’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

1- A king had four sons.    

2- There lived a lion in a forest.

3- A one-eyed man came to my office.

Rule 3- The same (एक समान) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी हम noun के पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

  1. Birds of a feather flock together

Rule 4- जब एक proper noun का प्रयोग common noun की तरह किया जाता है, तो उससे पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-        

1-He is a Milton.

2- He is a Mahatma Gandhi.

Rule 5- प्रति का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी हम ‘a’ का प्रयोग करते हैं

Examples-        

1-His income is Rupees 25000/- a month

2- His son spends Rs. 500/- a day

Rule 6- ‘A’ का प्रयोग ‘on’ (पर) के अर्थ में भी होता हैl

Examples-        

1-He found her a bed.

2- He went a hunting.

Rule 7- कुछ खास Phrases में भी ‘a’ का प्रयोग होता है 

Examples-        

1- A team of                             2- A crowd of  

3- A number of                        4- A pair of

5- A gang of                              6- A galaxy of

Syntax (वाक्य-रचना)

Syntax:-  The correct arrangement of words in a sentence

is called Syntax.

वाक्य में शब्दों को सही क्रम व सही रूप में रखने को ही Syntax कहते हैंl

Example-

Incorrect- He is going to the Mumbai.

Correct-     He is going to Mumbai.

Rules of Articles

1- A       2- An           3- The

Articles

Indefinite Article

  1. A      
  2. 2- An          

Definite Article

    1- The

Indefinite Article:-

A और An का प्रयोग singular countable nouns के साथ होता है,

जबकि uncountable nouns के साथ नहीं होताl

Example-

Incorrect- This is chair made of a plastic.

Correct-     This is a chair made of plastic.

Incorrect- There lived a frog in a water.

Correct-     There lived a frog in water.

Definite Article:-

Definite Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग निश्चित nouns, अर्थात जिस

noun को हम पहले से ही जानते है, के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है,

Example-

Incorrect- He wants to meet class-teacher.

Correct-     He want to meet the class-teacher.

Incorrect- My father wants to meet class-teacher.

Correct-     My father wants to meet the class-teacher.

Rules to use of ‘A’:-

Rule 1- ‘A’ का प्रयोग उस singular countable nouns के साथ एक का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए किया जाता है जिसका उच्चारण consonant की आवाज से होता हैl

Examples- A dog,       A book,       A mobile,         A pen,       A university, Autensil,   A one-eyed man,  A one-rupee note,  

A union,

Rule 2- Singular number में common noun से पहले any (किसी या कोई) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी ‘a’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

1- A king had four sons.    

2- There lived a lion in a forest.

3- A one-eyed man came to my office.

Rule 3- The same (एक समान) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी हम noun के पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

  1. Birds of a feather flock together

Rule 4- जब एक proper noun का प्रयोग common noun की तरह किया जाता है, तो उससे पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-        

1-He is a Milton.

2- He is a Mahatma Gandhi.

Rule 5- प्रति का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए भी हम ‘a’ का प्रयोग करते हैं

Examples-        

1-His income is Rupees 25000/- a month

2- His son spends Rs. 500/- a day

Rule 6- ‘A’ का प्रयोग ‘on’ (पर) के अर्थ में भी होता हैl

Examples-        

1-He found her a bed.

2- He went a hunting.

Rule 7- कुछ खास Phrases में भी ‘a’ का प्रयोग होता है 

Examples-        

1- A team of                             2- A crowd of  

3- A number of                        4- A pair of

5- A gang of                              6- A galaxy of

                        
Universal Truth [ सदा सत्य रहने वाली बातें ]

Universal Truth [ सदा सत्य रहने वाली बातें ]

(1)-यदि Direct Speech के Reported Part में कोई सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात, आदत सम्बन्धी बात, कहावत या किसी एतिहासिक घटना का वर्णन किया गया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported part के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l
For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “Two and two make four.” [ सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात ]
Indirect-  They said that two and two make four.

Direct-  I said to him, “The sun rises in the East.” [ सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात ]
Indirect-  I told him that the sun rises in the East.

Direct-  They said, “Dogs move their tails at acquaintance.” [ आदत ]
Indirect-  They said that dogs move their tails at acquaintance.

Direct-  I said to him, “India became free in 1947.” [ एतिहासिक घटना ]
Indirect-  I told him that India became free in 1947.

                        

Rules to use of An

Rules to use of An

Rule- 1– ‘An’ का प्रयोग उन शब्दों के पहले होता है जो किसी vowel letter से प्रारंभ होते हैंl

Examples-

An ass,     An elephant, An Ink-pot,       An orange,      An umbrella,       

Incorrect- He is an European.

Correct-     He is a European.

Incorrect- This is a onion.

Correct-     This is an onion.

Rule- 2– जो शब्द किसी consonant letter  से शुरू तो होते है लेकिन उनका उच्चारण हिंदी के स्वर से शुरू होता है, के पहले an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples- An hour,     An honest person,     An heir,      An honourable-man,         

Incorrect- He will return within half a hour.

Correct-    He will return within half an hour.

Incorrect- My friend is a honest man.

Correct-     My friend is an honest man.

Rule 3– जब कोई शब्द h से शुरू हो लेकिन शब्द के प्रथम syllable पर जोर न हो तो बहुधा उससे पहले an का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples- An historical, An hotel        

Incorrect- Henry IV is a historical play.

Correct-    Henry IV is an historical play.

Incorrect- They are living in a hotel.

Correct-     They are living in an hotel.

Rule- 4– कुछ abbreviation consonant से आरम्भ होते हैं, लेकिन उनका उच्चारण हिन्दी के स्वर से शुरू होता है, ऐसे में उनके पहले an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples- An M. A.,        An L. L. B.,          An S. D. O.,               An S. D. M.        

Incorrect- Abhi’s father is a M. L. A.

Correct-    Abhi’s father is an M. L. A.

Incorrect- A S. D. O. was living there.

Correct-     An S. D. O. was living there.

Definite Article

                        
Rules to use of ‘A’

Rules to use of ‘A’

Rule 8- ‘A’ का प्रयोग संख्या (number) और मात्रा (quantity) का बोध कराने के लिए भी होता हैl 

Examples-        

1- A lot of                               

2- A number of  

3- A great number of            

4- A large number of

5- A great deal of                   

6- A good deal of

Rule 9- ‘A’ का प्रयोग all (class या जाति) के अर्थ में भी होता हैl

Examples-        

1- A crow is a clever bird.         

2- A parrot is an innocent bird.  

3- A cow gives us milk.             

4- A lion is a dangerous animal.

Rule 10- Most का प्रयोग very के अर्थ में होने पर इसके पहले ‘a’ का प्रयोग होता हैl

Examples-      

1- He is a most handsome boy. 

3- That was a most interesting novel

Rule 11- यदि दो adjectives ‘and’ द्वारा जुड़े हो और दोनों एक ही noun को qualify करते हों, तो पहले adjective के पहले a/an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-      

1- A black and white cow. 

3- A tall and fat man.

4- A clerk and cashier.

Rule 12- यदि दो adjectives ‘and’ द्वारा जुड़े हो और दोनों दो अलग-अलग singular countable noun को qualify करते हों, तो दोनों adjective के पहले a/an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-      

1- A black and a white cow. 

3- A tall and a fat man.

4- A clerk and a cashier.

Rule 13- कोई या अज्ञात का भाव देने के लिए भी हम Proper Noun से पहले a का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-      

1- A Mr. Sharma wants to meet you. 

3- A Miss. Shreya wants to call you.

Rule 14- Counting express करने वाले शब्द या इकाई के पहले भी हम a का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-      

1- My mother brings a dozen of bananas for me. 

3- She has a thousand rupees.

4- A Kilo and a half – A kilo and half.         

5- Half an hour-   A half hour

Rule 15- कभी-कभी uncountable noun का प्रयोग countable noun की तरह होता है, ऐसे में हम इनके पहले भी a का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

1- This house is made of stone-  

The child is playing with a stone.

2- He write the letter in pencil-     

He bought a pencil yesterday. 

Rule 16- जब वाक्य में आये हुए become का अर्थ ‘होना या बनना होता है, तो ऐसे में हम इनके पहले भी a/an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

1- He wants to become a doctor.

2- I wanted to become a teacher.

3- She became an engineer.   

Rule 17- Plural noun को singular बनाने के लिए भी हम a/an का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

1- Five days work-                           

A five days work.

2- Two years plan-                          

A two years plan.  

Rules to Use of An

                        

Kinds of Noun (संज्ञा के भेद)

Kinds of Noun (संज्ञा के भेद)

Kinds Of Noun (संज्ञा के प्रकार)
Noun निम्नलिखित 5 भाग होते हैं l
1- Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा),
2- Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा)
3- Collective Noun (समूहवाचक संज्ञा),
4- Material Noun (पदार्थवाचक संज्ञा)
5- Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा)

1- Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा)

Proper Noun वह noun है जो किसी विशेष व्यक्ति, स्थान, या वस्तु के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है l
जैसे:-
1- व्यक्ति के नाम – Ram, Shyam, Mohan, Sohan.
2- स्थान के नाम- Agra, Bombay, Delhi
3- वस्तु के नाम – Table, Black-board, Stone, Fan
4- दिन, महीनो, तथा त्योहारों के नाम- Sunday, Monday, March, June, Diwali, Holi, Dashera

Note (विशेष)
1-Proper Noun का पहला अक्षर Capital होता है l
जैसे:-
Ram, Mathura, Ramayan, Sunday.
2-Proper Noun सदैव singular number में होता है l और इनके साथ सामान्यत: किसी article का प्रयोग नहीं होता है परन्तु कुछ nouns के पहले ‘the’ article का प्रयोग अवश्य किया जाता है l
a- नदियों, पहाड़ो, झीलों, समुद्रो, महानगरो, के नाम से पहले जैसे:-
The Gange, the Himalayas, the Indian Ocean
b- कुछ प्रान्तों तथा देशों के पहले जैसे:-
The Punjab, The United States
c- धार्मिक ग्रंथो के नाम के पहले जैसे:-
The Ramayan, the Gita, the Quran, the Bible.
d- समाचार पत्रों, मुख्य इमारतों तथा जहाजों के नाम से पहले जैसे:-
The Hindustan Times, The Tajmahal, The Victory (जहाज)
e- जब Proper Noun का प्रयोग Common Noun की तरह होता है तो जैसे:-
Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

2- Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा)


किसी एक विशेष व्यक्ति, वस्तु, या स्थान का ज्ञान नहीं करता वरन उससे एक ही जाति की सब वस्तुओं तथा व्यक्तियों का बोध कराने वाले noun को ही Common Noun कहते है l
जैसे:-

1- वस्तुओ के नाम- Table, chair, pen, book, box.
2- व्यक्ति तथा पशु-पक्षी- Boy, girl, man, woman, horse, cow, elephat, parrot, bird, kite.


Note (विशेष)
1- जब Proper, Material, और Abstract Noun के पहले कोई भी article (a, an, the) प्रयोग हुआ हो या वे बहुवचन में प्रयुक्त हुए हो तो इनको Common Noun समझ जाता है l
जैसे:-
1- Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.
2-
2- जब किसी Proper Noun से व्यक्तियों अथवा वस्तुओ की एक class का बोध हो तो उसे Common Noun समझा जाता है l
जैसे:-
 He is the Great Khali.
 3- जब Collective Noun एक से अधिक group प्रकट करें तो वह Common Noun हो जाता है l
 जैसे:-
 There are forty classes in my class.

3- Collective Noun (समूहवाचक संज्ञा)


किसी एक विशेष व्यक्ति, वस्तु के समूह को ही Collective Noun कहते है l
जैसे:-
class, army, flock, family, committee, crowd, bu7nch, government, council


Note (विशेष)
1- जब Collective Noun किसी विशेष झुण्ड, या समूह का बोध करता है तो वह Proper Noun होता है l

 जैसे:-
 Simon Commission, The Indian Team, The Ideal Navy

4- Material Noun (पदार्थवाचक संज्ञा)


एसे Nouns जिनसे किसी धातु या पदार्थ का बोध होता है जिससे की दूसरी चीजें बनाई जा सकती हैं Material Nouns कहलाते है l
जैसे:-

Gold, silver, copper, stone, water, oil, wood, etc.

5- Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा)


जिस noun से किसी गुण, दशा अथवा कार्य का बोध होता है , उसे Abstract Noun कहते है l अर्थात एसे nouns जिनको हम न तो छू सकते है और न ही देख सकते है केवल महशूस कर सकते है
 जैसे:-

Honesty, cleverness, wisdom, beauty, slavery, childhood, movement, revenge etc.

Next Page

Noun संज्ञा

Noun (संज्ञा)

किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान, या भाव के नाम को संज्ञा कहते है l

जैसे:-
Anshu (व्यक्ति), Jaipur (स्थान), Table (वस्तु), Honesty (भाव), Poverty (भाव)

Rules For Find Out Noun(संज्ञा को ज्ञात करने के नियम)
क्रिया से पहले ‘कौन’,’क्या’,’किसको’,’किसने’ आदि लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर में आता है वह noun होता है l
जैसे:-
1- Ram is writing a letter. में writes क्रिया है अब इसके पहले क्या लगा कर प्रश्न करे तो उत्तर में मिलेगा ‘letter’ जो की एक noun है, इसी तरह अब writes के पहले कौन लगा कर प्रश्न करे तो उत्तर में मिलेगा Ram जो की एक noun है l

Kinds Of Noun (संज्ञा के प्रकार)

Noun निम्नलिखित 5 भाग होते हैं l
1- Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा)
2- Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा)
3- Collective Noun (समूहवाचक संज्ञा)
4- Material Noun (पदार्थवाचक संज्ञा)
5- Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा)

1- Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा)

Proper Noun वह noun है जो किसी विशेष व्यक्ति, स्थान, या वस्तु के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है l
जैसे:-
1- व्यक्ति के नाम – Ram, Shyam, Mohan, Sohan.
2- स्थान के नाम- Agra, Bombay, Delhi
3- वस्तु के नाम – Table, Black-board, Stone, Fan
4- दिन, महीनो, तथा त्योहारों के नाम- Sunday, Monday, March, June, Diwali, Holi, Dashera

Note (विशेष)
1-Proper Noun का पहला अक्षर Capital होता है l
जैसे:-
Ram, Mathura, Ramayan, Sunday.
2-Proper Noun सदैव singular number में होता है l और इनके साथ सामान्यत: किसी article का प्रयोग नहीं होता है परन्तु कुछ nouns के पहले ‘the’ article का प्रयोग अवश्य किया जाता है l
a- नदियों, पहाड़ो, झीलों, समुद्रो, महानगरो, के नाम से पहले जैसे:-
The Gange, the Himalayas, the Indian Ocean
b- कुछ प्रान्तों तथा देशों के पहले जैसे:-
The Punjab, The United States
c- धार्मिक ग्रंथो के नाम के पहले जैसे:-
The Ramayan, the Gita, the Quran, the Bible.
d- समाचार पत्रों, मुख्य इमारतों तथा जहाजों के नाम से पहले जैसे:-
The Hindustan Times, The Tajmahal, The Victory (जहाज)
e- जब Proper Noun का प्रयोग Common Noun की तरह होता है तो जैसे:-
Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

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Kinds Of Noun (संज्ञा के प्रकार)

Use of It

Meaning of It (It का अर्थ)


It का अर्थ होता है- (यह, वह, इसने, उसने, इसे, उसे, इसको, उसको,) कभी-कभी It का कोई अर्थ नहीं होता है l ‘It’ का अर्थ प्रयुक्त स्थान पर निर्भर कर्ता है l ‘It’ का प्रयोग दो स्थानों पर किया जाता है अर्थात दो रूप में किया जाता है जो निम्नलिखित हैं-
1- Personal Pronoun के रूप में
2- Neutral It के रूप में

1- Personal Pronoun के रूप में प्रयोग-

Personal pronoun के रूप में it का प्रयोग दो रूप में किया जाता है
(i)- Nominative Case या Subjective case में अर्थात कर्ता के रूप में
(ii)- Objective Case में अर्थात कर्म के रूप में

(i)- Nominative Case या Subjective case में
Nominative case में ‘It’ का अर्थ (यह, वह, इसने, उसने) आदि होता है l Nominative case में होने पर it का subject के रूप में direct प्रयोग नहीं होता है बल्कि वाक्य में प्रयुक्त किसी noun के लिए इसका प्रयोग pronoun के रूप में किया जाता है l
जैसे:-
(i)- I have a book. It is very interesting.
      मेरे पास एक किताब है l यह बहुत रुचिकर है l
ii)- The Taj Mahal is in Agra. It is very beautiful.
       ताजमहल आगरा में है l यह बहुत सुन्दर है l
(iii)- There lives a lion in the forest. It has killed many people.
        जंगल में एक शेर रहता है l उसने कई लोगों को मार डाला है l
(iv)- See this monkey. It had danced well.
        इस बन्दर को देखो l इसने अच्छा नचा है l

(ii)- Objective Case में
Objective Case में it का अर्थ (इसे, उसे, इसको, उसको) आदि होता है l Objective Case में इसका प्रयोग direct नहीं होता है बल्कि पहले से प्रयुक्त किसी noun को जब object के रूप में रखा जाता है तो prono के रूप में हम उसके स्थान पर it का प्रयोग करते हैं l
जैसे:-
(i)- I have a book. I have bought it from Lucknow.
      मेरे पास एक किताब है l मैंने इसे लखनऊ से खरीदा है l
 (ii)- The Taj Mahal is in Agra. People like it very much.
        ताजमहल आगरा में है l लोग इसे बहुत पसंत करते हैं l
 (iii)- There lived a lion in the forest. A hunter killed it.
          जंगल में एक शेर रहता था l एक शिकारी में उसे मार दिया l
 (iv)- See that monkey. Ramu gave it a banana.
         उस बन्दर को देखो l रामू ने उसे केला दिया l

2- Neutral It के रूप में


इस रूप में it का कोई अर्थ नहीं लगाया जाता है क्योकि यहाँ इसका प्रयोग निष्क्रिय होता है l जब किसी वाक्य में subject कोई प्राकृतिक घटना होता है तो वहां हम subject के रूप में it का प्रयोग करते है l इसके अलावा मौसम, दिन, समय, महिना आदि बताने के लिए भी subject के रूप में it का प्रयोग करते है l
जैसे:-
(i)- समय के लिए-   It is 7 o’ clock.
(ii)- महिना के लिए-   It is the month of January.
(iii)- मौसम के लिए-   It is winter.    It was very hot yesterday.
(iv)- दिन के लिए-   It is Sunday today.
(v)- प्राकृतिक घटना के रूप में-   It is raining.

Letters’ Pronunciation in Words (Letters का उच्चारण )

Letters Pronunciation in Words

Letters का उनके स्थान परिवर्तन के साथ उच्चारण में परिवर्तन
अनेक letters ऐसे हैं जो अलग अलग स्थान पर अलग उच्चारण देते हैं l जैसे:-

‘E’ का उच्चारण:-
‘E’ का उच्चारण :-यदि e किसी word के अंत में आता है तो इसका कोई उच्चारण नहीं होता है लेकिन इसका अपने पूर्ववर्ती letters का उच्चारण प्रभाव जरूर पड़ता है l जैसे:-


1- यदि e का पूर्ववर्ती A हो तो अर्थात अंतिम अक्षर e और उसके पहले वाले अक्षर के पहले a आया हो तो a का उच्चारण ‘ए’ होता है l

Cane (केन)          lane(लेन)         Dane(डेन)         Same(सेम)

2- यदि e का पूर्ववर्ती I हो तो अर्थात अंतिम अक्षर e और उसके पहले वाले अक्षर के पहले I आया हो तो I का उच्चारण ‘आइ’ होता है l

Site (साइट)          Nine(नाइन)         Kite(काइट)         Line(लाइन)

3- यदि e का पूर्ववर्ती O हो तो अर्थात अंतिम अक्षर e और उसके पहले वाले अक्षर के पहले O आया हो तो O का उच्चारण ‘ओ’ होता है l

Scope (स्कोप)          Hope(होप)         Joke(जोक)         Stroke(स्ट्रोक)

4- यदि e का पूर्ववर्ती U हो तो अर्थात अंतिम अक्षर e और उसके पहले वाले अक्षर के पहले U आया हो तो I का उच्चारण ‘ऊ’ होता है l

Rule (रूल)          June(जून)         Cute(टक्यूट)         Dispute(डिस्प्यूट)

‘I’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी शब्द के अंत में ‘e’ आता है तो ‘I’ का उच्चारण ‘आइ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Kite (काइट)          Bite(बाइट)         Vine(वाइन)         Ride(राइड)

2- यदि किसी शब्द के अंत में ‘id’ ‘ig’ ‘in’ ‘ip’ ‘it’ आता है तो ‘I’ का उच्चारण ‘इ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Kid (किड)          Big(बिग)         Tin(टिन)         Rip(रिप)

3- यदि किसी शब्द में ‘I’ के बाद ‘nd’ ‘ght’ आता है तो ‘I’ का उच्चारण ‘आइ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Find (फाइंड)          Fight(फाइट)         Light(लाइट)         Kind(काइंड)

4- यदि किसी शब्द में ‘I’ के बाद ‘ng’ ‘nk’ आता है तो ‘I’ का उच्चारण ‘इ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Fring (फ्रिंग)          Sing(सिंग)         sink(सिंक)         Pink(पिंक)

5- यदि किसी शब्द में ‘I’ के बाद double letter आता है तो ‘I’ का उच्चारण ‘इ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Fill (फिल)          Fizz(फिज़)         Miss(मिस)         Kitten(किटेन)

‘O’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी शब्द के अंत में ‘op’ ‘og’ ‘ot’ ‘ob’ आता है तो ‘O’ का उच्चारण ‘ऑ’ होता है, लेकिन लघु उच्चारण होता है l जैसे:-

Pop (पॉप)          Dog(डॉग)         Hot(हॉट)         Mob(मॉब)

2- यदि किसी शब्द के अंत में ‘e’ आता है तो ‘O’ का उच्चारण ‘ओ’ होता है, और दीर्घ उच्चारण होता है l जैसे:-

Rose (रोज)          Hope(होप)         Pole(पोल)         Poke(पोक)

Letters का उनके स्थान परिवर्तन के साथ उच्चारण में परिवर्तन
अनेक letters ऐसे हैं जो अलग अलग स्थान पर अलग उच्चारण देते हैं l जैसे:-

‘U’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी शब्द के अंत में ‘ut’ ‘up’ ‘ub’ ‘un’ ‘ug’ आता है तो ‘U’का उच्चारण ‘अ’ होता है l जैसे:-

Nut (नट)          Cup(कप)         Cub(कब)         Bug(बग)         Bun(बन)

2- यदि शब्द का अंतिम अक्षर e है तो U का उच्चारण ‘ऊ’ होता है l

Tune (ट्यून)          Cube(क्यूब)         Cute(क्यूट)         Flute(फ्लूट)

‘C’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी शब्द में C के पीछें ‘e’ या ‘y’ आता है तो ‘C’ का उच्चारण ‘स’ होता है l जैसे:-

Cent (सेंट)          Cell(सेल)         Center(सेण्टर)         Cycle(साइकिल)

2- यदि किसी शब्द में C के पीछे ‘O’ ‘U’ या ‘A’ आता है तो ‘C’ का उच्चारण ‘क’ होता है l जैसे:-

Cold(कोल्ड)          Cat(कैट)         Cute(क्यूट)         Cap(कैप)

‘G’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी शब्द में ‘G’ के बाद ‘e’ ‘i’ या ‘y’ आता है तो ‘G’ का उच्चारण ‘ज’ होता है l जैसे:-

Gem (जेम)          Giant(जायंट)         Gym(जिम)         George(जॉर्ज)

2- यदि किसी शब्द में ‘G’ के बाद ‘u’ या ‘a’ आता है तो ‘G’ का उच्चारण ‘ग’ होता है l जैसे:-

Gum (गम)          Gun(गन)         Gap(गैप)         Garden(गार्डन)

‘Y’ का उच्चारण :-
1- यदि किसी एक syllable(उच्चारण खंड) के शब्द में ‘y’ आता है तो ‘y’ का उच्चारण ‘आइ’ होता है l जैसे:-

By (बाइ)          Fly(फ्लाई)         sky(स्काई)         shy(शाइ)

2- यदि किसी दो syllable(उच्चारण खंड) के शब्द में ‘y’ आता है तो ‘y’ का उच्चारण ‘ई’ होता है l जैसे:-

Party (पार्टी)          Puppy(पप्पी)         City(सिटी)         Baby(बेबी)

Kinds of Sentences

Kinds of Sentences (वाक्यों के प्रकार)


Sentence निम्नलिखित पांच प्रकार के होते हैं l


1- Assertive Sentences (कथनात्मक वाक्य)
2- Interrogative Sentences (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य)
3- Imperative Sentences (आज्ञासूचक वाक्य)
4- Exclamatory Sentences (विस्मय सूचक वाक्य)
5- Optative sentences (कामना सूचक वाक्य)

Assertive Sentences (कथनात्मक वाक्य)


ऐसा sentence जिसमे किसी कार्य का करना या होना स्पष्ट रूप से पाया जाता है या नहीं पाया जाता है Assertive Sentence कहलाता है Assertive Sentence 2 प्रकार का होता है l


1- Affirmative Sentences
2- Nigative Sentences

Affirmative Sentences (स्वीकारात्मक वाक्य)


ऐसा sentence जिसमे किसी कार्य का करना या होना स्पष्ट रूप से स्वीकार किया जाता है Affirmative Sentence कहलाता है l
जैसे:-


1- He plays football in the field.
2- We are working on this project.

Negative Sentences (नकारात्मक वाक्य)


ऐसा वाक्य जिसमे किसी कार्य के करने या होने से साफ इंकार किया जाता है Negative Sentence कहलाता है l
जैसे:-


1- Ram is not learning his lesson.
2- My wife does not go for a walk daily.

Interrogative Sentences


ऐसे वाक्य जिनमे किसी प्रकार का प्रश्न पूछा जाता है अथवा sentence के अंत में ? का प्रयोग मिलता है Interrogative Sentence कहलाता है l
जैसे:-


1- Do you know Mahatma Gandhi?
2- what is your name?

Interrogative Sentence 2 प्रकार का होता है l
1- Yes or No questions
2- Wh-questions

Yes or No Questions


ऐसा sentence जो किसी सहायक क्रिया (Do/does/is/are/am/was/were/has/have/had/will/shall/may/might/can/could/should/would/ought etc.) से प्रारम्भ, अर्थात जिसका उत्तर Yes or No में दिया जा सकता है, Yes or No question कहलाता है l


जैसे:-
1- Have you completed your work?.
2- May I come in?

Wh-Questions

ऐसा वाक्य जो किसी प्रश्नवाचक शब्द (What/why/where/when/how/who/whom/whose ect.)से शुरू होता है, अर्थात जिसका उत्तर हम हाँ अथवा न में नहीं दे सकते बल्कि उत्तर देने के लिए कुछ बोलना पड़ता है, Wh-Question कहलाता है l
जैसे:-
1- Why are you going there?.
2- When does She go for a walk daily?

Imperative Sentence


ऐसे वाक्य जिनमें कोई आदेश, सुझाव, प्रस्ताव,अनुरोध, प्रार्थना आदि का भाव प्रकट होता है, Imperative sentence कहलाते है l
जैसे:-
1- Stand up on the bench. (आदेश)
2- Give me a glass of water, Please. (अनुरोध)
3- Let’s go for a swim. (प्रस्ताव)
4- You should helpthe poor. (सुझाव)

Exclamatory Sentences


ऐसे वाक्य जिनसे किसी आश्चर्य हर्ष, शोक, भय, करुणा, घृणा, आदि का बोध होता है, अर्थात वाक्य के अंत में exclamation mark (!) मिलता है, Exclamatory Sentences कहलाते हैं l


जैसे:-
1- What a fine morning this is! (आश्चर्य)
2- Alas! I am ruined. (शोक)
3- Hurrah! we have won the match. (हर्ष)
4- How disgusting!. (घृणा)

Optative Sentences

ऐसे वाक्य जिनसे कोई आशीर्वाद, अभिशाप, प्रार्थना या कामना प्रकट होती है, Optative Sentences कहलाते हैं l
जैसे:-
1- May you live long! (आशीर्वाद)
2- May you go to hell! (अभिशाप)
3- Wish you a happy journey! (कामना)
4- May God bless you with a child! (प्रार्थना)

Use of Definite Article The

Use of Definite Article ‘The’

Rule 13-

कभी-कभी adjective समूहवाचक संज्ञा का काम करता है, किसी विशेष जाति का बोध कराता है, ऐसे में उस adjective के पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- The rich should help poor.

Correct-    The rich should help the poor.

Incorrect- Talented are always respected.

Correct-    The talented are always respected.

Rule 14-

Superlative degree के adjectives तथा ordinals (क्रमवाचक संख्या) के पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- The Bharat Ratna is highest civilian award of India.

Correct-    The Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of India.

Incorrect- C. Raj Gopalachari was first man to receive the Bharat

                   Ratna award.

Correct-    C. Raj Gopalachari was the first man to receive the Bharat

                   Ratna award.

Rule 15-

कभी-कभी common noun का प्रयोग समस्त जाति का बोध कराने के लिए किया जाता है, ऐसे में उनके पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Elephant is a big animal.

Correct-    The elephant is a big animal.

Incorrect- Rose is a beautiful flower.

Correct-    The rose is a beautiful flower.

Rule 16-

दिशा के पहले भी हम article the का प्रयोग करते है, लेकिन तब जब दिशा के पहले किसी preposition का प्रयोग होl

Examples-

Incorrect- The Sun rises in east.

Correct-    The Sun rises in the east.

Incorrect- Smell is coming from north.

Correct-    Smell is coming from the north.

Incorrect- My school faces the east.

Correct-    My school faces east.

Incorrect- The West Bengal is a state in India.

Correct-   West Bengal is a state in India.

Rule 17-

The का प्रयोग नहरों, हवाई जहाजों, समुद्री जहाजों और रेलगाड़ियों के नाम के पहले होता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

Correct-    The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red

                   Sea.

Incorrect- Meghdoot is an Embraer jet aircraft.

Correct-    The Meghdoot is an Embraer jet aircraft.

Rule 6-

नदियों (rivers) के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Ganga is the most holy river in India.

Correct-    The Ganga is the most holy river of India.

Incorrect- Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier.

Correct-    The Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier

Note लेकिन जब किसी नदी के नाम के साथ उस शहर का नाम जुड़ा हो जो उस पर स्थित है तो उस नदी के नाम के पहले ‘the’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Kingston-on- the Thames.

Correct-    Kingston-on- Thames.

Incorrect- Stratford on the Avon.

Correct-    Stratford on the Avon.

Rule 18-

The का प्रयोग deserts के नाम के पहले भी होता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world.

Correct-    The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world.

Incorrect- Thar Desert is the great Indian desert.

Correct-    The Thar Desert is the great Indian desert.

Rule 19-

वाद्य यंत्रो के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग होता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Harmonium is a musical instrument.

Correct-    The harmonium is a musical instrument.

Incorrect- Guitar has six strings.

Correct-    The guitar has six strings.

Note- Single countable noun के रूप में वाद्य यंत्रो का प्रयोग होने पर इनके पहले a, an का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

He wants to buy a guitar.

Tarun has a harmonium.

Rule 20-

Surnames के पहले जिससे परिवार के सदस्यों का बोध होता है, the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Sharmas are very humble.

Correct-    The Sharmas are very humble.

Incorrect- Guptas are living in Delhi.

Correct-    The Guptas are living in Delhi.

                        
Use of The

Use of The

Rule 6-

नदियों (rivers) के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Ganga is the most holy river in India.

Correct-    The Ganga is the most holy river of India.

Incorrect- Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier.

Correct-    The Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier

Rule 7-

जब हम किसी खास व्यक्ति या वस्तु, जिससे हम परिचित हो या फिर जिसका उल्लेख पहले हो चुका हो के बारे में बात करते है या लिखते है तो उसके पहले the का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

Incorrect- Boy sitting beside you, is my brother.

Correct-    The boy sitting beside you, is my brother.

Incorrect- I want to read book published in the newspaper.

Correct-     I want to read the book published in the newspaper.

Incorrect-  Peon of my school is very polite.

Correct-     The peon of my school is very polite.

Rule 8-

समाचार पत्रों (newspapers) के नाम के पहले the का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

Incorrect- Dainik Jagran is the popular newspaper in my area.

Correct-    The Dainik Jagran is the popular newspaper in my area.

Incorrect- Punjab Keshri published that news today.

Correct-    The Punjab Keshri published that news today.

Rule 9-

सागरों (sea), महासागरों (oceans) तथा खाड़ियों (bay/gulf) के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean.

Correct-    The Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean. (महासागर)

Incorrect- Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean.

Correct-    The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean.

Incorrect- Red sea is lying between Africa and Asia.

Correct-    The Red sea is lying between Africa and Asia. (सागर)

Incorrect- Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

Correct-    The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian

                   Ocean. (खाड़ी)

Rule 10-

कुछ ऐतिहासिक घटनाओं के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789-1799.

Correct-    The French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789-1799.

Incorrect- First World War lasted from 1914-1918.

Correct-    The First World War lasted from 1914-1918.

Incorrect- Freedom Struggle began from Meerut.

Correct-    The Freedom Struggle began from Meerut.

.

Rule 11-

The का प्रयोग nationality प्रकट करने वाले शब्द के पहले भी किया जाता है लेकिन nationality प्रकट करने वाला शब्द पुरे समूह का बोध करता होl

Examples-

Incorrect- English are very white and fair.

Correct-    The English are very white and fair.

Incorrect- French are very advanced in health.

Correct-    The French are very advanced in health.

Note- जब नागरिकता बताने वाले शब्द समूह का बोध न कराकर कुछ लोगों का बोध कराते हैं, तो उनके पहले the का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाताl

Example

Incorrect- An the Indian was sitting on the bench.

Correct-    An Indian was sitting on the bench.

Incorrect- A the Chinese and A the Pakistani were talking.

Correct-    A Chinese and A Pakistani were talking.

Rule 12-

जब किसी proper noun का प्रयोग common noun की तरह हो, तो उसके पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Kalidas is Shakespeare of India.

Correct-    Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

Incorrect- Kanpur was known as Manchester of India.

Correct-    Kanpur was known as the Manchester of India.

Use of The

Rule 6-

नदियों (rivers) के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Ganga is the most holy river in India.

Correct-    The Ganga is the most holy river of India.

Incorrect- Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier.

Correct-    The Yamuna comes from the Yamunotri Glacier

Rule 7-

जब हम किसी खास व्यक्ति या वस्तु, जिससे हम परिचित हो या फिर जिसका उल्लेख पहले हो चुका हो के बारे में बात करते है या लिखते है तो उसके पहले the का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

Incorrect- Boy sitting beside you, is my brother.

Correct-    The boy sitting beside you, is my brother.

Incorrect- I want to read book published in the newspaper.

Correct-     I want to read the book published in the newspaper.

Incorrect-  Peon of my school is very polite.

Correct-     The peon of my school is very polite.

Rule 8-

समाचार पत्रों (newspapers) के नाम के पहले the का प्रयोग करते हैंl

Examples-

Incorrect- Dainik Jagran is the popular newspaper in my area.

Correct-    The Dainik Jagran is the popular newspaper in my area.

Incorrect- Punjab Keshri published that news today.

Correct-    The Punjab Keshri published that news today.

Rule 9-

सागरों (sea), महासागरों (oceans) तथा खाड़ियों (bay/gulf) के नाम के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean.

Correct-    The Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean. (महासागर)

Incorrect- Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean.

Correct-    The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean.

Incorrect- Red sea is lying between Africa and Asia.

Correct-    The Red sea is lying between Africa and Asia. (सागर)

Incorrect- Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

Correct-    The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian

                   Ocean. (खाड़ी)

Rule 10-

कुछ ऐतिहासिक घटनाओं के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789-1799.

Correct-    The French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789-1799.

Incorrect- First World War lasted from 1914-1918.

Correct-    The First World War lasted from 1914-1918.

Incorrect- Freedom Struggle began from Meerut.

Correct-    The Freedom Struggle began from Meerut.

.

Rule 11-

The का प्रयोग nationality प्रकट करने वाले शब्द के पहले भी किया जाता है लेकिन nationality प्रकट करने वाला शब्द पुरे समूह का बोध करता होl

Examples-

Incorrect- English are very white and fair.

Correct-    The English are very white and fair.

Incorrect- French are very advanced in health.

Correct-    The French are very advanced in health.

Note- जब नागरिकता बताने वाले शब्द समूह का बोध न कराकर कुछ लोगों का बोध कराते हैं, तो उनके पहले the का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाताl

Example

Incorrect- An the Indian was sitting on the bench.

Correct-    An Indian was sitting on the bench.

Incorrect- A the Chinese and A the Pakistani were talking.

Correct-    A Chinese and A Pakistani were talking.

Rule 12-

जब किसी proper noun का प्रयोग common noun की तरह हो, तो उसके पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Kalidas is Shakespeare of India.

Correct-    Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

Incorrect- Kanpur was known as Manchester of India.

Correct-    Kanpur was known as the Manchester of India.

                        
Definite Article The

Use of The:-

Rule 1-

Definite Article ‘The’का प्रयोग निश्चित noun, अर्थात जिस

noun को speakerपहले से ही जानता है, के साथ प्रयोग किया

जाता हैl

Examples-

The book you are reading is my book.

The boy you are talking about is my son.

Rule 2-

Definite Article ‘The’का प्रयोग धार्मिक पुस्तकों से नाम के पहले किया

जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Ramayan is a holy book.

Correct-    The Ramayan is a holy book.

Incorrect- Bible is the religious book of the Christians.

Correct-     The Bible is the religious book of the Christians.

Note- लेकिन जब धार्मिक ग्रंथो के नाम के पहले उसके लेखक का नाम  Owner के रूप में दिया गया हो तो धार्मिक ग्रंथो के नाम के पहले the का प्रयोग नही होता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- The Valmiki’s Ramayan is a holy book.

Correct-    Valmiki’s Ramayan is a holy book.

Incorrect-  The Milton’s Paradise Lost is an epic.

Correct-    Milton’s Paradise Lost is an epic.

Rule 3-

जब proper noun के पहले किसी adjective का प्रयोग किया जाता है, तो उस proper noun के पहले the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- ‘Hamlet’ is written by great Shakespeare.

Correct-    ‘Hamlet’ is written by the great Shakespeare

Incorrect-  Master blaster Sachin Tendulkar was powerful

                    player.

Correct-     The Master blaster Sachin Tendulkar was powerful player.

Rule 4-

‘The’का प्रयोग पर्वत श्रेणियों (mountain series) के नाम के पहले भी किया

जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Mount Averest is the highest pick.

Correct-    The Mount Averest is the highest pick.

Incorrect- Mount Abu is the highest peak in The Aravalli Range.

Correct-     The Mount Abu is the highest peak in The Aravalli Range.

Rule 5-

द्वीपों के समूह (group of islands) के पहले भी the का प्रयोग किया जाता हैl

Examples-

Incorrect- Andamans island are in the Bay of Bengal.

Correct-    The Andamans island are in the Bay of Bengal.

Incorrect- Phillipines is situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

Correct-     The Phillipines is situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

Note- खास द्वीपों के नाम के पहले the का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाताl

Example- Java, Sumatra, Ceylon

                        
Change Of Nearness Words

Change Of Nearness Words [ समीपता सूचक शव्दों का परिवर्तन ]

Direct se Indirect बनाते समय समीपता सूचक शव्दों को दूरी सूचक शव्दों में बदल देते है l जैसे की निम्नलिखित सारिणी में अच्छी तरह से समझाया गया है l

Nearness समीपता सूचक
Direct Speech
Distantness दूरी सूचक
Indirect Speech
ThisThat
TheseThose
HereThere
NowThen
AgoBefore
ComeGo
JustThen
ThusSo
Hence [यहाँ से ]Thence [ वहाँ से ]
Hither [ यत्र, इधर ]Thither [ तत्र, उधर ]
To-NightThat Night
To-DayThat Day
TomorrowThe Next Day
YesterdayThe Previous Day
The Next DayThe Following Day
Last WeekThe Previous Week
Last NightThe Previous Night

Rule 1-

Direct se Indirect बनाते समय यदि This, Here, तथा Now आदि शव्द किसी ऐसी वस्तु, स्थान, या समय की ओर संकेत करते है जो कहते समय वक्ता के सामने हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “We have been coming here.”
Indirect-  They said that they had been coming here [ उसी स्थान पर ].

Direct-  The child said to me, “This is my garden.”
Indirect-  The child told me that this is his garden. [ उसी समय उसी स्थान पर ]
Indirect-  The child told me that this was his garden. [ उसी स्थान पर बाद में ]

                        
Vowel and Consonant (स्वर और व्यंजन)

Vowel And Consonant(स्वर और वयंजन)

English Alphbet में 2 प्रकार के letters होते हैं

1-  Vowel (स्वर)

2-  Consonant (व्यंजन)

English alphabet में केवल पांच ही letters (a, e, i, o, u) Vowel हैं l

बाकी 21 letters consonant हैं l

English letters का हिंदी उच्चारण

S.N.Lettersउच्चारणबनने वाला हिंदी अक्षरउदहारण
1Acar, way, man
2Bबीbook
3Cसीcat, cent
4Dदीdid, diwali
5Eeagle, elephant
6Fएफfoot
7Gजीgood, gel, gif
8Hएचhen
9Iआइआइinkpot, ice
10Jजेjoke
11Kकेkill, kick
12Lएलlook, late
13Mएमman, mango
14Nएनnose, nice
15Oopen, our
16Pपीpick, put
17Qक्यूquick, quit
18Rआरrat, run
19Sएसsend, sink
20Tटीtilak, team
21Uयूupper, urine, put
22Vवीvan
23Wडब्लूway, water
24Xएक्सएक्स, क्षxylophone, xray, laxmi
25Yवाईyou
26Zजेडzoo, zeal

हिंदी अक्षर के लिए प्रयुक्त होने वाले अंग्रेजी के अक्षर

(Use of English Letters to Write a Hindi Letter)

हिन्दीEnglishहिन्दीEnglishहिन्दीEnglishहिन्दीEnglishहिन्दीEnglish
aअंannps, c
aaअ:ahatf, phh
ik, cthbक्षksh,x
ikhdbhत्रtra
ugdhmज्ञgya
u,ooghny 
hringtr 
echthl 
aichhdw, v 
oj, gdhsh 
aujhnsh 

Next Page

Rules of Translation

How to Translate (हिंदी से अंग्रेजी में अनुवाद करने के नियम)

1- अनुवाद करने से पूर्व वाक्य को ध्यान से पढ़ लेना चाहिए और उसके टेंस को पहचान लेना चाहिए l

2- अनुवाद करते समय सरल शब्दों का प्रयोग करने की कोशिश करनी चाहिए l फार्मूले के अनुसार ही अनुवाद करना अच्छा रहता है l शब्द to शब्द अनुवाद नहीं करना चाहिए बल्कि भावार्थ के अनुसार अनुवाद करना best रहता है l

3- ऐसे शब्दों का प्रयोग करने से बचना चाहिए जिसका पूर्ण ज्ञान विद्यार्थी को न हो l शब्द भंडार(Vocabulary) को बढ़ाने कोशिश करनी चाहिए l Proverb तथा Idiom and Phrase का अच्छा ज्ञान होना चाहिए l

4- सभी प्रकार के वाक्यों का ज्ञान होना चाहिए और उसके अनुवाद करने का फार्मूला मालूम होना चाहिए l

5- वाक्यों में उचित शब्दों का उचित स्थान पर प्रयोग करना चाहिए l

6- छात्रो को Punctuation, Sequence of tense, Narration(Direct and Indirect), Voice(Active and Passive), Articles, Mood, Parts of speech, Degrees of comparison, Helping Verbs, Question Words, relative noun, का अच्छा ज्ञान होना चाहिए l

7- शब्द भंडार(Vocabulary) को बढ़ने के लिए प्रतिदिन व अधिक से अधिक बार अनुवाद के लिए दिए गए अभ्यास को करना चाहिए, तथा उसके नीचे दिए हुए Vocabulary को याद करना चाहिए l याद रखिये अभ्यास से सबकुछ हाशिल किया जा सकता है l cricket commentry, हिंदी समाचार के सुनने के बाद उसी का english news सुनना, english newspaper पढना मददगार साबित होता है l

8- शब्दों के spellings अच्छी तरह याद् रखना चाहिए l

9- बड़े वाक्यों का अनुवाद घबराकर नहीं बल्कि छोटे-छोटे खंडो में बांटकर करना चाहिए l

10- हस्तलेख (hand writing) सुन्दर व साफ होना चाहिए l

11- Participles का ज्ञान होना चाहिए l

12- Intermediate में कम से कम 5000 तथा High School में कम से कम 3000 शब्दों का meaning याद होना चाहिए l

13- Verbs के विभिन्न Forms याद होने चाहिए l

14- Writing Speed अच्छी होनी चाहिए ताकि हम अपने किये गए अनुवाद को दुहरा भी सके l

Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965)

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)

Birth-

T. S. Eliot was born on September 26, 1888 in St. Louis, Missouri in Midwestern America. His nickname was Tom. But at the age of 25 he moved to Britain and attained British citizenship in 1927.

Father-

His father’s name was Henry Ware Eliot. He was a successful businessman. He was a Boston Brahmin rooted in England, but T. S. Eliot’s grandfather had moved to St. Louis, Missouri, America.

Mother-

His mother’s name was Charlotte Champe Stearns. She was a poet and social worker. She had 6 children and T. S. Eliot was the last child.

Education-

He attended Smith Academy for early education and studied Latin, Ancient Greek, French and German, after that studied at Harvard from 1906-1909 and graduated in Philosophy. He earned Master of Arts in English Literature.

From 1911 to 1914 he was studying Indian philosophy and Sanskrit.

Marriage Life-

At Harvard, he met Emily Hale and fall in love with her. They exchanged letters during 1914-1915 but they did not meet again until 1927. Later, when he was of 26, he met Vivinenne Haigh Wood, she was Cambridge governess. He married with her at Hampstead Register Office on 26th June 1915. His first wife Vivienne Haigh-Wood died in 1947. He married second time with his private secretary, Valerie Fischer in 1957.

Literary Life-

T. S. Eliot began to write poetry when he was of 14. His first published poem was “A Fable for Feasters”. It was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905. He published three short stories in 1905, “Birds of Prey”, “A Tale of a Whale” and “The Man Who Was King”. The Marriage was not happy because of Vivienne’s health problems. They formally separated in 1933.

His Works-

T. S. Eliot was a famous modern poet, playwright and Critic. He met Ezra Pound in 1914. He was Eliot’s literary mentor who got his poems published and aided him in receiving critical acclaim.

Eliot’s first major poem was “The Love Songs of J Alfred Prufrock”. It was published in “A Magazine of Verse”. Ezra Pound persuaded the magazine editor to publish that poem. Later that poem was published separately as a part of Eliot’s first collection of poetry-“Prufrock and Other Observations in 1947”. The title of this song has been taken from Rudyard Kipling’s poem- “The Love Song of Har Dyal”.

The poem’s well-known opening lines are-

“Let us go then, you and I,

When the evening is spread out against the sky

Like a patient etherised upon a table;”

His next major work was “The Wasteland”. It was first published in “The Criterion”. This poem was dedicated to Ezra Pound and referred him as ‘il miglior fabbro’ or ‘the better craftsman’. The poem was criticised for being too obscure and complex. The poem reflects the moral and spiritual decay in post-World War in Europe.

His essays “Tradition and the Individual Talent” (1920) and “Hamlet and His Problems” (1920) made him famous modern critic.

In “Tradition and Individual Talent”, Eliot defined poetry as ‘not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion’. ‘Not the expression of personality, but as escape from personality’.

Eliot’s Volume of Plays- (1962)

1– Murder in the Cathedral (1935)

2– The Family Reunion (1939)

3– The Cocktail Party (1949)

4– The Confidential Clerk (1954)

5– The Elder Statesman (1959)

Awards-

He was awarded Nobel Prize in Literature for his pioneer contribution of poetry.

Death-

T. S. Eliot died on January 04, 1965, in London. His ashes were placed in St. Michael’s Church, East Coker, his ancestral village, on 17th April 1965.

Rules For The Change Of Tenses

Rules For The Change Of Tenses [ Tense में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम ]

1-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टिंग Part, Present अथवा Future Tense में हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported speech के Tenses में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They say, ” He have done that.”
Indirect-  They say taht he have done that.

Direct-  The child says to me, “I can jump so high.”
Indirect-  The child tells me that he can jump so high.


2-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टिंग Part, Past Tense में हो तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported speech के Tenses में निम्नलिखित परिवर्तन करते है l :-

(i)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Indefinite Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Indefinite Tense में बदल देते है l-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He goes to school daily.”
Indirect-  They said taht he went to school daily.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I jump so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he jumped so high.


(ii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Continuous Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Continuous Tense में बदल देते है l-

For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He is going to school.”
Indirect-  They said taht he was going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I am jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he was jumping so high.


(iii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Perfect Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है l-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He has gone to school.”
Indirect-  They said that he had gone to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I have jumped so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had jumped so high.

Rules For The Change Of Tenses [ Tense में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम ]

(iii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Present Perfect Continuous Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदल देते है-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He has been going to school.”
Indirect-  They said taht he had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I have been jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had been jumping so high.


(iv)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Past Indefinite Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है-

For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He went to school.”
Indirect-  They said that he had gone to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I jumped so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had jumped so high.


(v)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Past Continuous Tense हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसको Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदल देते है-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He was going to school.”
Indirect-  They said taht he had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I was jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had been jumping so high.


(vi)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, Past Perfect Tense या Past Perfect Continuous Tense में हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसमें कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He had gone to school.”
Indirect-  They said that he had gone to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I had jumped so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had jumped so high.


(vii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, में यदि Will, Shall, Can, May, आदि आये तो Indirect बनाते समय Will को would, shall को should, Can को could, May को might में बदल देते है l-


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He will go to school.”
Indirect-  They said taht he would go to school.

Direct-  I said to him, “I shall jump so high.”
Indirect-  I told him that I should jump so high.


(viii)-यदि Direct Speech का रिपोर्टेड Part, में यदि Would, Should, Could, Might, Must, Ought, आदि आये तो Indirect बनाते समय इनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैl


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He would like to go to school.”
Indirect-  They said that he would like to go to school.

Direct-  I said to him, “I shall jump so high.”
Indirect-  I told him that I should jump so high.


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, ” He must go to school.”
Indirect-  They said that he must go to school.


Direct-  I said to him, “You ought to respect elders .”
Indirect-  I told him that he ought to respect elders.

                        
Essay Writing Tips

How to Write Good Essay (एक अच्छा निबंध कैसे लिखें)

Long Composition

Essay Writing 

Essay writing एक कला है l Essay शब्द फ्रांसीसी भाषा के शब्द ‘essai’ से बना है l इसका अर्थ होता है ‘प्रयास’ l essay लिखना कठिन जरूर है लेकिन प्रयास से इसमें दक्षता प्राप्त की जा सकती है l याद रखें-

करत-करत अभ्यास ते, जड़मति होत सुजान l

रसरी आवत-जात ते, सिल पर परत निशान ll

बहुत के लोग निबंध को रटने का प्रयास करते है, जो की गलत है l इससे निबंध की स्वाभाविकता का ह्रास होता है l अब High school की परीक्षा में कुछ hints या outlines पहले से ही दिए जाते है जिनकी सहायता से निबंध को पूरा करना होता है l इससे निबंध कुछ हद तक आसान हो जाता है l याद रहे इन्ही hints को अपना heading बना लेना चाहिए l जबकि इंटरमीडिएट में ऐसा नहीं है उसमे hints नहीं दिए जाते है आप अपनी तरफ से ही heading बनाना होता है l

1- निबंध लिखते समय ध्यान रखने योग्य बातें-भाषा सरल और स्पष्ट होनी चाहिए l

2- वाक्य छोटे-छोटे तथा उसमे उचित विराम-चिन्हों का प्रयोग करना चाहिए l

3- दिए गये outlines को अपना heading बना लेना चाहिए l

4- दिए गए topics में से जिसमें अधिक जानकारी हो उसी पर निबंध लिखना चाहिए l

5- कठिन शब्दों के प्रयोग से बचना चाहिए और शब्दों की spelling सही होना चाहिए l

6- शुरू में टॉपिक के बारे में Introduction(प्रस्तावना) जरूर देना चाहिए l Intoduction प्रभावशाली होना चाहिए l  

7- hand-writing सुन्दर रखने की कोशिश करनी चाहिए l

8- बीच-बीच में महान व्यक्ति के कथन या मुहाविरो का प्रयोग करने से निबंध प्रभावशाली बनता है l

9- संक्षिप्त रूपों (abbrebiations) का प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए l

10- निर्धारित शब्दों के अन्दर ही अपनी बातें पूरी करने की कोशिश करें l

11- Introduction की ही तरह से उपसंहार(conclusion) भी प्रभावशाली होना चाहिए l

12- किसी शब्द या स्वकी को बार-बार दुहराना नहीं चाहिए l

13- निबंध को अपनी भाषा में लिखना चाहिए l

14- लेखन गति अच्छी होनी चाहिए जिससे और प्रश्नों के लिए समय कम न पड़े l

15- परीक्षा के 30 दिन पहले से ही महत्वपूर्ण topics पर निबंध लिखने का अभ्यास करना चाहिए l  

16- लिखने के बाद निबंध को एक बार दुहरा लेना चाहिए l

उम्मीद है मेरे ये कुछ tips जरूर आपकी मदद करेंगे l याद रखे सिर्फ जानकारी से कुछ नहीं होता, अम्ल में लाने से होता है l

“मंजिल उन्हें मिलती है, जिनके सपनों में जन होती है l

पंख से कुछ नहीं होता, हौंसले से उड़ान होती है” ll

Rules to Change The Persons of Pronouns

Rules to Change the Persons of Pronouns [ सर्वनाम के वचन में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम ]

Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए Persons में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियमो का अच्छा ज्ञान होना आवश्यक है l Person निम्नलिखित तीन प्रकार के होते है-

1-First Person (I, My, Mine, Me, Myself, We, Us, Our, Ours, Ourself, Ourselves ) [ प्रथम पुरुष]
2-Second Person ( you, Your, Yours, Yourself, Thou, Thee, Thine, Thyself ) [मध्यम पुरुष ]
3-Third Person ( He, Him, His, Himself, She, Her, Herself, It, It’s, Itself, They, Them, Their, Themselves, Name [ उत्तम पुरुष ]

Rule 1-यदि Direct Speech के Reported Part में First Person का Pronoun आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उसको रिपोर्टिंग Part के Subject के Person, Number, and Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “We have been going to school.”
Indirect-  They said taht they had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “I have been jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that he had been jumping so high.


Rule 2-यदि Direct Speech के Reported Part में Second Person का Pronoun आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उसको रिपोर्टिंग Part के Object के

Person, Number, and Gender के अनुसार बदल देते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  They said to her, “You have been going to school.”
Indirect-  They told her that she had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “You have been jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that I had been jumping so high.


Note-यदि Direct Speech के Reported Part में Second Person का Pronoun आया हो लेकिन Reporting Part में Object न आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय रिपोर्टिंग Part में अपने तरफ से First Person या Third Person के Pronoun को अपना Object बनाकर उसके अनुसार बदल देते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “You have been going to school.”
Indirect-  They told her that she had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said, “You have been jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that I had been jumping so high.


Rule 3-यदि Direct Speech के Reported Part में Third Person का Pronoun आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उसको नहीं बदलते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said to her, “He has been going to school.”
Indirect-  They told her that he had been going to school.

Direct-  The child said to me, “They have been jumping so high.”
Indirect-  The child told me that they had been jumping so high.

Rule 4-कभी-कभी Reporting Speech के Subject तथा Object दोनों Third Person में होते है, ऐसे में Indirect बनाते समय यह पता नहीं चल पाता है कि Pronoun Subject के अनुसार बदला है या Object के अनुसार, इसलिए कोष्ठक के अन्दर उन Pronoun को लिख देते है जिनके अनुसार परिवर्तन होता है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  He said to him, “You have been going to my school.”
Indirect-  He told him that he(object) had been going to his(subject) school.

Direct-  Ram said to Mohan, “I have given you a pen.”
Indirect-  Ram told Mohan that He (subject) had given him (object) a pen.

                        

15 One-liner Questions about William Wordsworth

15 Imp. One-liner Questions about William Wordsworth

1- Whose poetry was in search of sublime moments, as well as beauty in the lives of simple rural people?

Ans- Wordsworth’s poetry

2- When was The Prelude begun?

Ans- In 1799

3- Which work of S. T. Coleridge’s contained an analysis of a broad range of philosophical life?

Ans- Biographia Literaria

4- When was The Prelude completed?

Ans- In 1850

5- When was The Prelude published?

Ans- In 1850, after his death

6- When was the first version of The Prelude published?

Ans- In 1799

7- When was the second version of The Prelude published?

Ans- In 1805

8- How many books were there in the first version of The Prelude?

Ans- 2 books

9- How many books were there in the second version of The Prelude?

Ans- 13 books

10- When was the final version of The Prelude published?

Ans- In 1850

11- How many books were there in the final version of The Prelude?

Ans- 14 books

12- What was the subtitle of The Prelude?

Ans- Growth of a Poet’s Mind; An Autobiographical Poem

13- In which poem did Wordsworth described the beauty and richness of childhood?

Ans- The Prelude

14- To more than infant softness, giving me, /Among the fretful dwellings of mankind.” From which poem has this line been taken?

Ans- The Prelude

15- Who described Wordsworth’s poem The Prelude as a ‘lyrical bildungsroman’?

Ans- Richard Clarke

Helping Chart to Change the Persons of Pronouns

Helping Chart For The Change Of Persons of Pronouns [ सर्वनाम के वचन में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी सहायक सारिणी ]

 Persons
पुरुष
 Nominative Case
कर्ता कारक
 Objective Case
कर्म कारक
 Possessive Case
सम्बन्ध कारक
 Reflexive Case
निज कारक
 First Person
प्रथम पुरुष
I                                               
We
Me   
Us
My                         
Our, Ours
Myself                      
Ourselves
 Second Person 
मध्यम पुरुष
You                                            
Thou तू
You                       
Thee तुझे
Your                      
Thy, Thine तेरा, तेरी
Yourself,
Yourselves          
Thyself  तूने स्वयं से
 Third Person
उत्तम पुरुष
He                       
She                       
It                     
They                    
Name (M)                    
Name (F)
Him                       
Her                       
It                    
Them                     
Him                      
Her
His                       
Her                      
It’s                     
Their                      
His                      
Her
Himself                    
Herself                  
Itself                 
Themself                 
Himself                 
Herself

Note 1-यदि Reported Speech में We का प्रयोग समस्त मानव जाति के लिए किया गया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय We को नहीं बदलते है l


Note 2- Reported Speech में कभी-कभी राजा, बादशाह या बड़े लोग अपने लिए I के स्थान पर We का प्रयोग करते है, Indirect बनाते समय इनके स्थान पर He लिखते है l

                        
Major Poets of the Augustan Age (1700-1798)

Major Poets of the Augustan Age (1700-1798)

1- Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
2- Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
3- Thomas Gray (1716-1771)
4- William Collins (1721-1759)
5- Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774)
6- William Cowper (1731-1800)
7- George Crabbe (1754-1832)
8- Robert Burns (1759-1796)

1- Alexander Pope (1688-1744)


English poet, critic, and satirist.
Born in- Lombard Street, London.
Well known for- His heroic epic- ‘The Rape of the Lock’ published in 1712.

2- Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)


English poet, biographer, critic and lexicographer


Born in- Lichfield, Staffordshire, 1709
First major work- ‘London-Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal’
May-1738

3- Thomas Gray (1716-1771)


Born in- Cornhill, London, 1716
Father- Philip Gray
Mother- Dorothy Gray,
Gray declined the offer of becoming Poet Laureate in 1775.

4- William Collins (1721-1759)


Born in- Chichester, England, 1721
First work published- ‘The Royal Nuptials’
Well known for- His 12 Odes


5- Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774)


Anglo-Irish poet, playwright, novelist.
Born in- Kilkenny West, Ireland in 1730.


First master work- ‘The Vicar of Wakefield’

6- William Cowper (1731-1800)


Born in- Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, 1731


First work- ‘Olney Hymns (1779) (Newton), 67 hymns by Cowper and the rest by Newton.

7- George Crabbe (1754-1832)


Poet and Clergyman.
Born in- Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England, 1754.
Well known for- ‘The Village’ 1782 (Poem)


8- Robert Burns (1759-1796)


Scottish Poet.
Born in- Alloway (Village), Ayrshire of South West Scotland, 1759.


First work published- ‘The Royal Nuptials’
Well known as ‘The Bard of Ayrshire’.

Biography of Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892)

Life-history of Alfred Lord Tennyson

Birth-

Alfred Lord Tennyson was born in Somersby, Lincolnshire, England on August 6, 1809.

Father-

His father’s name was George Clayton Tennyson. His father was a clergyman.

Mother-

His mother’s name was Elizabeth Fytche, after marriage Elizabeth Tennyson.

Alfred Lord Tennyson was the fourth children of his parents. His parents had twelve children.

Education-

He studied at Louth Grammar School in his early educational life from 1816-1820, later on he joined Trinity College, Cambridge in 1827.

Friend-

Arthur Hallam was his college friend. Their friendship developed when he was at Trinity College, Cambridge. They were a part of a literary group named ‘The Apostles’ at Trinity College. The group supported Alfred Lord Tennyson much and gave confidence to be a young poet. Hallam was not only Tennyson’s closest friend but his brother-in-law also. Hallam was engaged with Tennyson’s sister Emily Tennyson. His friend Hallam suddenly died in 1833 when he was of 22. It was a great loss to Tennyson. In his memory Tennyson wrote his elegy ‘In Memoriam’. It was published in 1850. It shocked Tennyson much and he decided not to publish for 10 years. But it was also considered that his second volume of poetry got heavy criticism, it discouraged him much so he decided not to publish again for ten years.

His Works-

Although Tennyson had written many poems but his first collection of poetry was Poems Chiefly Lyrical. It was published in 1830.

His second collection of poetry was The Poems. It was published in 1832. This one has not given him fame. Although the second volume of poetry got unfavourable reviews, his friend Hallam supported Tennyson and promoted it.

The Princess, A Medley Dealing, were his famous works.

His well-known poem ‘In Memoriam’ brought him closer to Queen Victoria, she was much impressed with his poem. This poem made him Poet Laureate of England.

His Other Works-

Maud and Other Poems

The Idylls of the King

Queen Mary

Harold

Becket

Short Lyrics-

His main short lyrics are given below-

“Break, Break, Break”, “The Charge of the Light Brigade”, “Tears, Idle Tears”, and “Crossing the Bar”.

Blank Verses-

He composed some blank verses- ‘Idylls of the King’, “Ulysses”, and “Thithonus”.

Celebrated Poems-

Alfred Lord Tennyson made a collection of poems in 1830 and named it ‘Poems Chiefly Lyrical’. His poems- “Claribel” and “Mariana” were included in his first solo collection of poems.

Turning Point-

In 1842, he published his poems ‘Two Volumes’. This one was different and brought him more fame. The success of this volume made him great poet. Now he was a popular poet and got government pension few years later.

Awards-

Alfred Lord Tennyson was made the Poet Laureate of England by Queen Victoria in 1850, after William Wordsworth’s death. Samuel Rogers was ahead to Tennyson for the post of Poet Laureate, but he had refused. Tennyson was The Poet Laureate till his death in 1892.

It is considered the longest period of any Laureate. Queen Victoria

 decided to do this, because she was much influenced with his work ‘In Memoriam’.

He was awarded the Chancellor’s gold Medal at Cambridge for his first pieces. “Timbuktu”.

Marriage-

In 1850 Tennyson married with Emily Sellwood, his childhood friend form Shiplake village.

Children-

He had two sons-

1- Hallam Tennyson

2- Lionel

His Valuable Phrases/Quotes-

Many of his phrases were more valuable. He was at ninth in the list of most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Some quotes are given here-

  1. “Nature, red in tooth and claw”- (In Memoriam)
  2. “Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all” (In Memoriam)
  3. “Theirs not to reason why theirs but to do and die” (The Charge of the Light Brigade)
  4. “My strength is as the strength of ten because my heart is pure” (Sir Galahad)
  5. “To strive, to seek, to find, and not yield” (Ulysses)
  6. “Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers” (Locksley Hall)
  7. “The old order changeth, yielding place to new’ (Morte D’ Arthur)

Death-

Tennyson died in Haslemere, England on 6th October, 1892. His body was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Direct & Indirect Rules for Assertive Sentences

साधारण वाक्यों के लिए Direct और Indirect के नियम

Assertive Setences में Direct से Indirect बनाते समय निम्नलिखित नियमो का पालन करना चाहिए l –


1-यदि Direct speech में reprting verb के साथ object भी आया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय reporting verb को निम्न प्रकार बदलते है-

 Directसे Indirect
 say toको tell
 says toको tells
 said toको told


For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said to me,”You are a naughty boy.”
Indirect-  The teacher told me that I was a naughty boy.”

2-यदि रिपोर्टिंग verb के बाद object न दिया हो तो आने वाले say, says तथा said में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said,”You are a naughty boy.”
Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy.”

3-Comma तथा Inverted commas को हटा कर that का प्रयोग करते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said,”You are a naughty boy.”
Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy.”

4-Inverted capital Commas के अन्दर प्रथम शब्द के प्रथम अक्षर को small कर देते है, परन्तु Proper Noun तथा I रहने पर उसे capital ही रहने देते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said,”You are a naughty boy.”
Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy.”


5-अगर रिपोर्टिंग भाग direct speech के बीच में या अंत में दिया है तो उसे Indirect बनाते समय पहले लिखते है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  “You are a naughty boy”,the teacher said.
Indirect-  The teacher said that you were a naughty boy.”


6-यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर संबोधन के शब्द का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उसे अपना object बना लेते है या फिर addressing……as का प्रयोग करे है l

For Examples:-
Direct-  The teacher said, “Mohan, you are a naughty boy.”
Indirect-  The teacher told Mohan that he was a naughty boy.”

Direct-  The teacher said, “Children, I love you very much.”
Indirect-  Addressing as children the teacher said that he loved them very much.


7-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में Sir या Madam शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय ‘respectfully’ reporting verb के पहले या ‘with respect’ reporting verb के बाद लगाते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said to his boss, “Sir, we want to go home.”
Indirect-  They respectfully told his boss taht they wanted to go home.

Direct-  The children said, “Madam, you are very kind.”
Indirect-  The children told the madam with respect that she was very kind.


8-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में you see या well शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इन शव्दों को हटा देते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “Well done Suresh, You have done that.”
Indirect-  They told Suresh taht he had done that.

Direct-  The children said, “You see Madam, we are very kind.”
Indirect-  The children told madam that they were very kind.


9-यदि Direct Speech के रिपोर्टेड part में thank You, hope, या feel शब्द आये हो तो Indirect बनाते समय thank you को thanked में hope को hoped में तथा feel को felt में बदल देते है l


For Examples:-
Direct-  They said, “Thank you Suresh, he has done that.”
Indirect-  They thanked Suresh that he had done that.

Direct-  The children said, “We feel we can jump so high.”
Indirect-  The children felt that they could jump so high.

Rules for the Change of Tense

                        
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